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Page 24, line 4> : "produced" should read "composed." 










Copyright MCMXXX by Oliver Ditson Company 
International Copyright Secured 



volume lays no claim to being an encyclopedic history 
JL of Art-song in America. It presents no report of any com- 
mittee of experts, no findings of any learned commission. It is 
simply and solely the result of devoted and enthusiastic study on 
the part of one individual. Whatever of value it may possess 
is due to the fact that it is a genuine study of American song 
itself rather than study about American song. Whether it be a 
loss or a gain that this study has been so purely individual on the 
part of the author is, of course, a debatable question one may 
only express the possible hope that what it lacks in accumulated 
authority it may perhaps gain in unity of viewpoint. 

At any rate it is primarily a study in the development of 
one particular phase of American music and only secondarily a 
history of this same phase. Nothing more than a skeletonized 
historical background has been sought for, merely enough to 
identify to a certain extent the earlier songs and their writers. 
Even this has been entirely discarded in the later chapters. 

If it shall seem that certain songs and certain song-writers 
have been omitted that should have been included (and such is 
absolutely certain to be the case), the author craves pardon in 
advance for such unintended omissions and wishes to remind the 
reader that complete comprehensiveness in so large a field is 
scarcely to be expected of one fallible mind. 

He feels himself under the deepest obligations to Carl Engel, 
Walter R. Whittlesey, and the other members of the staff of the 
Music Division of the Library of Congress for their unfailing 
courtesy and assistance in making the researches in that remark- 
able collection a memorable and delightful experience ; to William 



Arms Fisher for his interest from the first inception of the work ; 
and, one might almost say, most of all to those invaluable pioneer 
researches in the field of early American music by Oscar G. 
Sonneck, without which all our present-day efforts would seem 
almost hopeless. 

He wishes also to express his gratitude to The Musical 
Quarterly and The Musical Observer for permission to include 
in this book certain portions which had earlier appeared in their 
columns ; and to express to the following publishing houses his 
deep appreciation of their kindness in permitting such generous 
quotation from their copyright songs : G. Schirmer, Inc., New 
York; Oliver Ditson Company, Boston; Arthur P. Schmidt 
Company, Boston ; Boston Music Company, Boston ; Composers' 
Music Corporation, New York ; Carl Fischer, Inc., New York ; 
J. Fischer and Bro., New York; Associated Music Publishers, 
New York ; H. W. Gray Company, New York ; G. Ricordi and 
Company, New York; Theo. Presser Company, Philadelphia; 
John Church Company, Cincinnati. 

Oberlin, Ohio, June 8, 1980. 



CHAPTER I, 17501800 1 

Francis Hopkinson, James Bremner, William Selby, P. A. 
von Hagen. 

CHAPTER II, 18001825 11 

Alexander Reinagle, Raynor Taylor, Benjamin Carr, James 
Hewitt, Victor Pelissier, Gottlieb Graupner. 

CHAPTER III, 18251850 29 

George J. Webb, Charles E. Horn, Henry C. Watson, F. N. 
Crouch, William R. Bristow, Henry Russell, J. P. Knight, 
J. L. Hatton, Anton Philipp Heinrich ("Father" Heinrich), 
George P. H. Loder, Elam Ives, Jr., William A. King, 
Charles Jarvis, James Flint, George Henry Curtis. 

CHAPTER IV, 18501870 37 

Dwight's Journal, Stephen Collins Foster, William H. Fry, 
George F. Bristow, Richard Storrs Willis, James M. Deems, 
Francis Boott, G. W. Stratton, George F. Benkert. 

CHAPTER V, 18501870 (Continued) 55 

Lucien H. Southard, J. C. D. Parker, Alfred H. Pease, 
Harrison Millard, Benjamin E. Woolf, Louis Moreau Gott- * 
s chalk, B. D. Allen, J. Remington Fairlamb, B. J. Lang, 
Richard Hoffmann, S. B. Mills, Otto Dresel, Wulf Fries, 
Gustav Satter, Frederic Brandeis, S. B. Schlesinger, Joseph 
Mosenthal, Karl Merz, Julius Eichberg, Frederick L. Ritter, 
Robert Gold beck. 




CHAPTER VI, 1870 1880 ... 78 

J. K. Paine, Dudley Buck, Homer N. Bartlett. 

CHAPTER VII, 1870 1880 (Continued) 102 

W. K. Bassford, G. W. Marston, Oscar Weil, Stephen 
Emery, Samuel P. Warren, George E. Whiting, George L. 
Osgood, C. Henshaw Dana, W. W. Gilchrist, Silas G. Pratt, 
W. J. McCoy, Louis C. Elson, N. H. Allen, Frederick Grant 
Gleason, Jules Jordan, J. C. Bartlett, F. Q. Dulcken, Clara 
K. Rogers, H. W. Nicholl. 

CHAPTER VIII, 18801900 . . . . . . . 112 

Arthur Foote, George W. Chadwick, Edward MacDowell, 
James H. Rogers, Ethelbert Nevin, William Arms Fisher, 
Ernest R. Kroeger, Henry Holden Huss, Horatio Parker, 
Sidney Homer, Harvey Worthington Loomis, Mrs. H. H. A. 
Beach, Henry F. Gilbert. 

CHAPTER IX, 19001930 . .141 

Ernest Bloch, Charles M. Loeffler, George F. Boyle, Marion 
Bauer, Frederick Jacobi, Emerson Whithorne, Arthur 
Shepherd, Carl Engel, John Beach, Oscar G. Sonneck, 
Alexander Steinert, Jr., Frederic Ayres, Arthur Farwell, 
Howard Brockway, Alexander Rihm, Henry Hadley, David 
Stanley Smith, Richard Hageman, Charles Fonteyn Manney, 
John Powell, Carl Deis, Edward Ballantine, George Harris. 

CHAPTER X, 1900 1930 (Continued) . 165 

Arthur Bird, Timothy Mather Spelman, Templeton Strong, 
Louis Campbell-Tipton, Blair Fairchild. 



CHAPTER XI, 19001930 (Continued) 182 
Wintter Watts, John Alden Carpenter. 

CHAPTER XII, 19001930 (Continued) 214 
Alice Barnett, A. Walter Kramer. 

CHAPTER XIII, 19001930 (Continued) 236 
Bainbridge Crist, Charles Tomlinson Griffes. 

EPILOGUE The Future 269 


Francis Hopkinson, James Bremner, William Selby, 

P. A. vonHagen 


JUST as it has sometimes seemed that the best pumpkin pie has 
the least pumpkin in it, so it may very well be that in any in- 
troduction to the subject of early American song similar pro- 
portions should hold with regard to early American song itself ! 
For whatever else our early forefathers may have done with 
success, not much can be said for their songs. And if/ we tenta- 
tively but laboriously define art-song to be that particular 
species of the general song-form which is used for the conscious 
solution of some musico-aesthetic problem imposed by its text, | 
then very little evidence of true art-song is to be found in the 
days of our early American song writers. And yet, fortunately, 
there is even in these earlier beginnings just enough suggestion 
of the art-song of the future to establish a logical connection and 
to give hints, vague though they be, of that which is to come. 

It is for us of today a far leap into the past to call to mind 
Francis Hopkinson, the contemporary and friend of George 
Washington; yet it seems reasonable to consider that our song 
began with him. Who, then, was Francis Hopkinson, and how 
was he the pioneer in American song? 

A lifelong citizen of Philadelphia, Francis Hopkinson 
(1737-1791) was born when that city, foremost of American 
cities in many respects, was lamentably behind in musical affairs. 
In his young manhood, however, he saw the beginning of that 
steady musical progress which at just about the time of his death 



was to reach what has been called Philadelphia's "golden age" 
the years 1790 to 1850. In this progress he undoubtedly had 
no small share. We know that he was a skilful performer on 
both the harpsichord and organ, that he trained choral bodies in 
church singing, that he wrote church music, and what is most 
interesting to us, the fact seems to be established that he was 
"our first poet-composer in general and of songs in particular" 
(Sonneck). He was well trained in music, possessed an excellent 
musical library (rather Italian in its tendencies) , was apparently 
well-read musically in short, he was a cultured musical ama- 
teur. A lawyer by profession, a graduate of the College of 
Philadelphia in 1757, A.M., 1760, LL.D., 1790, also A.M. 
(hon.)? College of New Jersey, 1763. He was also a signer of 
the Declaration of Independence and held important offices 
under the new Republic. We can readily understand that 
through his personal prestige he was able to accomplish much 
for the cause of music. It was probably in 1759 that he wrote 
his first song, My Days have been so wondrous Free, the song 
that we always associate with his name and which we may 
well consider as the beginning of that long line of American 
songs which forma the subject of our present study. In the 
style of the time it is written in but two parts, treble and bass, 
the filling in of the harmony being left to the accompanist, or 
played simply as it stands. While no one would call it in any 
sense a great song, it has its own merits, and although chiefly 
interesting from its historical importance, it is not entirely with- 
out value from a purely musical standpoint. Hopkinson seems 
to have had an excellent melodic gift ; his little tunes move along 
in a manner not undistinguished. One never feels that they are 
commonplace. In this song there is a frequent recurrence of a 
repeated passing-note in the melody, a distinctly instrumental 
effect which when given to the voice almost approximates a syn- 
copation. Harmonically there is little of interest and it has to 



be admitted that the tiny postlude seems to be characterized by 
what the rest of the song so happily lacks complete mediocrity. 

Another song, Rondo from Seven Songs, published in 1788 and 
dedicated to George Washington, shows faint f oreshadowings of 
real art-song technique. The deft treatment of the words "This 
whining and pining" is anything but perfunctory, the bit of 
imitative work at "Curse my fortune" is delightfully sophisti- 




cated, and the turn to the minor at "Shall I set me down and 
sigh" is as psychologically correct in the eighteenth century as 
in the twentieth. So that musically as well as historically it is 
entirely fitting that we begin our studies with these early songs 
of Francis Hopkinson. 

If we observe the musical background against which we must 
project this figure of our first secular song-writer, in the years, 
let us say, 1750 to 1800, we find it purely English, with no 
slightest sign of that all-pervasive German influence which is to 
come later. It seems clear that from about 1730 until well into 
the nineteenth century this English influence was predominant. 
The question then naturally arises as to what England was 
doing in music at this time and how it was to influence America. 

In England it was the time of those writers and compilers of 
ballad opera Arne, Linley, Arnold, Dibdin, Shield, Storace 
and others, who, basing their wqjk upon the extraordinarily suc- 
cessful Beggar's Opera (17ft), nad evolved a type of ballad- 
opera peculiarly their own, related of course to the folk-operas 
of other countries in that it also consisted of plays interspersed 
with music, but still possessing a very real individuality. To be 
sure these operas often deteriorated into mere pasticcio form, a 
hodge-podge of melodies gathered at random from any source 
whatsoever; but at their best estate they were works of both 
virility and grace. It behooves us to look upon these men with 
respect and admiration for the very real ability shown in many 
of these operas. To one who leafs through these fascinating 
old scores in the Library of the British Museum there comes the 
realization that this first definite and powerful influence brought 
to bear upon our early American music was decidedly whole- 
some; a fact often overlooked in the time of our later, more 
zealous devotion to all that was German in music. 

With the question as to how this music reached and influ- 
enced America we approach a most interesting chapter in our 

1750-1800 7 

musical relations with England both before and after the Revo- 
lutionary war, for it seems that England continually sent of her 
very best to entertain and educate this rather independent 
daughter of hers in the West. 

It was in 1750 that we in America had our first taste of the 
Beggar's Opera, and from that time on ballad operas came in a 
copious stream from England. In the last fifteen years of the 
century something like fifty different operas by the English 
composers already mentioned were produced, as well as a few by 
Rousseau and Gretry in English form, some of these quickly 
passing out of sight, others holding their own for a long season, 
quite as is the wont of opera today. We are not as familiar 
with the musical interpreters of these early works as we are of 
the later, but we know of the presence in America as early as 
1766 of Miss Wainwright and Stephen Wools, both capable 
English singers, and reputed to have had the distinction of being 
pupils of Dr. Arne. As we approach the new century we find 
the list of singers constantly growing in interest and importance. 

The Euterpiad (New York, April 15, 1830), quoting from 
some London magazine in regard to the status of music in 
America past and present, refers to Incledon and Phillips as 
the first English vocalists to visit New York, and states that the 
latter gave the greater satisfaction, his singing of Moore's mel- 
odies being particularly pleasing. In this connection we may 
note that the first song in the earliest volume of old copyright 
songs in the Library of Congress at Washington that priceless 
collection of early American music is the following song by 
this same Philipps : "The Hunter's Horn, a new sporting Cava- 
tina sung by Mr. Philipps with the most unbounded applause at 
the vocal concerts, Dublin, at the Theatre Royal, Crow St., and 
at the New York Theatre. Composed by T. Phillips. Copy- 
right secured, New York. Published for the composer by Geib 
and Co., 23 Maiden Lane." It is marked as received at the 


Department of State May 28, 1819, by Daniel Brent, Chief 
Clerk. Phillips' colleague, Incledon, it seems, was successful 
with the rough sea songs, but pelted off the stage in Beggar's 

The article quoted above adds that Mrs. Knight (formerly 
Miss Povey) of Drury Lane was "the first English lady of talent 
to visit America," and that she, too, was more successful in bal- 
lads than in opera. She was closely followed by Miss George of 
the Haymarket Theatre and Drury Lane, and with her begins 
the really brilliant succession of young artists coming to us from 
London. Miss George was not restricted in her abilities to 
ballads, as her predecessors had been, but was equally at home 
in opera and oratorio, with a voice of great compass, and the 
reputation, as a singer, of being quite unsurpassed on the Eng- 
lish stage for taste and skill in vocal technique. Later, as Mrs. 
Oldmixon, she continued to hold a secure place in the admiration 
of American audiences for many years. Among others well 
known in England who came to America at this time and were 
to make the early years of the nineteenth century notable in 
operatic annals were Miss Broadhurst from Co vent Garden, not 
yet twenty years old; the Darleys, who possessed an excellent 
reputation in England; John Hodgkinson, real name Meadow- 
craft, twenty-six years old, versatile and brilliant, who had won 
his spurs at Bath and was just about to begin his London career, 
a tragedian, comedian and richly endowed singer, called in Eng- 
land "the provincial Garrick" ; Miss Brett, afterward his wife ; 
Mrs. Pownall, who as Mrs. Wrighten had achieved a distin- 
guished success at Drury Lane, notable for her skill both as 
singer and actress and beloved for the sincerity and generosity 
of her character. So it will be seen that even in these early days 
audiences in Philadelphia and New York and later in Boston 
were treated to no second-rate performances. 

That the works performed were, according to the standards 

1750-1800 9 

of the day, worthy of the eminent singers and comparable to, 
and in general identical with those given in London is shown by 
Mr. Sonneck's study of this question in his Early Opera in 
America. Not only were the same works given in America to 
a great extent, but they even suffered no great delay in their 
overseas production, the American premiere often following 
more closely upon that in England than we would have expected. 
Our forefathers seem already to have had the true American 
fondness for being up to date in all things, musical as well as 
otherwise. It would seem to be typical that one of the earliest 
performances of Handel's Messiah (if indeed not the very earli- 
est) to be given outside of England was that in America in 
1770. We must promptly disabuse our minds of any idea that 
America was nothing but a crude, raw country, destitute of any 
culture. Crude and raw in many respects it must have been, 
but there were true music lovers then as now, and we were not so 
far behind the rest of the world as we sometimes think. Rather 
we were a true child of English culture and one of whom she 
needed not to be ashamed. 

In a material way, too, we were ambitious, as is shown by the 
fact that we provided adequate and dignified edifices for the ac- 
commodation of these operatic entertainments. The article in 
the Eutcrpiad, quoted above, continues, "The Park Theatre 
.... affords means of giving more effect to dramatic produc- 
tions of every description than any theatre in England the 
metropolis excepted" ; and we read elsewhere that the New 
Theatre, Philadelphia (1793-94), was considered one of the 
seven wonders of America; as large as Covent Garden, and an 
exact copy of the Theatre Royal at Bath, England. 

It is interesting, also, to learn that during these years or- 
chestral music was flourishing, and though performed by smaller 
and less efficient orchestras, much of the best orchestral music of 
Europe was being heard here. So that to such men as Francis 


Hopkinson and other ardent amateurs in the art of music there 
were even here in America opportunities for culture not at all to 
be despised. 

At this time, too, began that migration to America of musi- 
cians from other lands which a little later was to mean so much 
to our musical development. James Bremner, organist, com- 
poser, and probably Hopkinson's teacher, a relative of Robert 
Bremner, well known English music publisher, came to Phila- 
delphia in 1763, and died there in 1780. William Selby, born 
in England 1738, came to America about 1770 and from that 
time until his death in Boston in 1798 was one of the central 
figures in the musical life of that city. He was organist, harp- 
sichordist, teacher, concert promoter; wrote a concerto for 
harpsichord, a quartet sonata, organ pieces, anthems, and songs. 
But so far as is known, none of these has been preserved. Peter 
Albrecht von Hagen came to America 1774, originally from 
Rotterdam, but more lately from London. He was a pupil of 
Honauer in Paris and son of P. A. von Hagen, organist and 
violinist in Rotterdam. After spending some time in Charleston 
he came to New York in 1789, and to Boston 1796. He died in 

It is in this same period (1750-1800) that we see the dis- 
rupting effect of the war of the Revolution, in the course of 
which music naturally came to a standstill ; and at its conclusion 
the comfortable and easy-going status of colonial life was ex- 
changed for the uncertainties and responsibilities of a new and 
untried State, slowly and tentatively developing its own political 
and art consciousness, all of which we find reflected in its music. 

From our point of view, then, we may perhaps consider it as 
the time when the stage was being set for the appearance of 
American song as such; that its only representative along the 
direct line of our study is in the person of Francis Hopkinson, 
who is a figure, as I have tried to show, of no little importance in 
the beginning of the study of our subject. 



Alexander Reinagle, Raynor Taylor, Benjamin Carr, 
James Hewitt, Victor Pelissier, Gottlieb Graupner 

AT the beginning, then, of the nineteenth century, we find in 
America many excellent singers engaged for the most part 
in giving performances of ballad operas, together with numerous 
more or less capable orchestral groups ; but what is more to our 
purpose, we find in the last decade of the passing century a pro- 
nounced increase in that influx of musicians from Europe, who 
by their skill and musicianship, their wide knowledge of musical 
affairs in England and on the Continent were to prove so helpful 
in this crucial time. Alexander Reinagle, Raynor Taylor, and 
Benjamin Carr in Philadelphia; James Hewitt and Victor Pelis- 
sier in New York ; Gottlieb Graupner in Boston all these are 
names that we Americans do well to honor ; for these men came 
to America, made their permanent homes here and deliberately 
took upon themselves the task of seeing to it that America should 
hear the best music of the world so far as it was possible to do 
so; and through their arrangements and at times necessary 
simplifications of the works of the European masters, and their 
own original compositions, they laid the foundations upon which 
we have been building ever since. Fortunately we are still in 
possession of some of these arrangements and original composi- 
tions in the Library of Congress. 

Of these men the first to reach America was Alexander 
Reinagle, of Austrian descent but born in England in 1756, who 
reached New York in 1786 but left shortly afterwards for Phila- 



delphia where he resided permanently ; died in Baltimore, 1809. 
Reinagle was pianist, composer, and manager of theatrical 
enterprises, a musician of high ideals and capabilities, so much 
so in fact that he was highly esteemed by Carl Philipp Emanuel 

-(3) The much admir'd 


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Bach who is said to have asked for his silhouette that it might be 
included in his collection of those of his friends and the celeb- 
rities of the day. Reinagle's teacher in Scotland had been 
Raynor Taylor who was soon to follow him to America. 
Reinagle's songs at their best show abounding vigor, firm tex- 
ture due primarily to his use of dissonance and a melody that 
is broad and dignified. His initial themes are flexible, often 
extending throughout the compass of an octave. His harmonic 
style is less free than that of his teacher Raynor Taylor. This 
conservatism is shown, for instance, in the fact that his disso- 
nances, when used at all, are carefully prepared. His song / 
have a Silent Sorrow (R. B. Sheridan) is really an excellent 
little song. 

Raynor Taylor, who followed Reinagle to Philadelphia in 
1793, was born in England probably in 1747, and died in 
Philadelphia in 1825. He was organist, pianist, famous for 
his powers of improvisation, and had been a recognized composer 
of ballads^ in England before coming to America. In his songs 
he w T as much given to following a very fixed structural program, 
generally modulating both toward the dominant and relative 
minor in the course of the same song, rarely toward the sub- 
dominant. Most of these songs were short and of the simplest 
construction. Harmonically he was very free for his time, mak- 
ing frequent use of unprepared dissonance and even at times 
introducing the chord on the second degree none too gram- 
matically, it is to be feared. In Jockey and Jenny he employs 
imitation between the voice part and the bass of the accompani- 
ment, and in a Rondo for piano makes effective use of true 
canon. Apparently Taylor was a musician not afraid to go 
his own way ! 

Last, but probably most important of our Philadelphia 
group is Benjamin Carr who also arrived in 1793. He was 
born in England about 1769, and died in Philadelphia in 1831. 



Younger than either of his colleagues, he outlived them both by 
several years. He was a leader in every worth-while musical 
movement in Philadelphia, a man of large and wholesome in- 
fluence. That the city of his adoption was not unappreciative 


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is shown in the fact that at his death a monument was erected to 
his memory. One of his songs, Ah! how Hapless Is the Maiden, 
was sung by the most distinguished singers of his day Mrs. 
Oldmixon, Mrs. Hodgkinson, and Miss Broadhurst. It is a 
coloratura song abounding in scales and sequences of broken 



thirds, stiff and utterly lacking in spontaneity. This florid type 
was apparently not congenial to Carr, for the more lyric por- 
tions come off better, being dignified and worthy. His opera, 
The Archers, performed in 1796, has sometimes been called the 
first American opera, but it now seems that this honor must go 


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elsewhere. We have remaining from this opera a Rondo from 
the overture, arranged for piano, and the air Why, Huntress, 
Why? This latter is attractive, and interesting for its rhythmic 
combinations, the voice almost constantly taking J^ J) against a 
triplet of eighth notes in the accompaniment. When, however, 
the voice takes ^^^^ the accompanying triplet drops out, 
thus avoiding the conflict of four against three ! Carr sometimes 



made use of augmented harmonies. Without question his most 
successful song is Hymn to the Virgin Ave Maria Number 
Three of "Six Ballads from the poem The Lady of the Lake' 9 
(Scott), Op. VII, published in 1810 by Carr and Schetky, 
Philadelphia, a splendidly preserved copy of which is in the 
Library of Congress. This Ave Maria is really a remarkable 
song for its time, and I hazard the claim that its principal theme 




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(fourth score) is the most touchingly beautiful phrase in all early 
American song. Here begins art in song conscious, beautiful 


This use of a long sustained tone, flowering out at its close 
into the most delicate shades and tints, is characteristic of Carr 
and here shows at its very best. There is at the Library of the 
British Museum a most interesting composition of Mr. Carr's, 
published in London, unfortunately without date, entitled "Poor 
Richard, a favorite Ballad, words by Mr. John Carr, composed 
by B. Carr, and sung in the Principal Concerts of England . . 
London, Printed and Sold by J. Bland, at his Music Ware- 
house ; No. 45, Holborn." This is elaborately orchestrated for 

1800-1825 23 

2 horns, 2 flutes, 2 violins, 2 bassoons, cembalo, viola and bass. 
The orchestration is not unskilfully done, and the interludes 
contain effective part-writing for the various instruments. 

The two outstanding musicians at this same early period in 
New York, Jarnes Hewitt and Victor Pelissier, both arrived 
there at the same time that Ray nor Taylor and Benjamin Carr 
came to Philadelphia, in those years so notable for the various 
beginnings of serious musical adventure in America 1792, 
1793. Hewitt, violinist, composer and publisher, was born in 
England, 1770; died at New York, 1827. He seems to have 
been to New York what Carr was to Philadelphia, the leading 
spirit in all musical affairs. He came to New York in company 
with several others, Bergman, Young, Phillips, and Jean Gehot, 
all "professors of music from the opera house, Hanover Square, 
and Professional Concerts under the direction of Haydn, Pleyel, 
etc., London" (it will be noted that in those days the term "pro- 
fessor" seems to have indicated professional musician as con- 
trasted with amateur) . The other members of this group were 
helpful in raising the standard of orchestral playing in America 
but left no particular record as composers, although Gehot is 
known to have written quartets, trios, etc., all trace of which has 
been lost. In furnishing a musical background for the declam- 
ation of Collins' Ode on the Passions in 1795, Hewitt seems to 
have been the first in America to write melodrama. He also 
wrote the opera Tammany (1794) and various musical numbers 
for The Patriot (1794), Columbus (1797), and other similar 
works. His song In a far distant clime I have left a sweet rose 
(180 -) is charmingly simple and Mozartian. He was subject, 
however, to the same modulatory timidity that we observed in the 
case of the Philadelphia writers, although his song In vain the 
tears of anguish flow (180 -) is unusually elaborate for him, 
having beside the customary turn toward the dominant in the 
first part, a second section in the parallel minor which touches its 
own relative major before returning to the original first section. 


Quite a little journey into the world ! 

Hewitt's colleague in New York, Victor Pelissier, is notable 
for having written the first American opera, Edwin and 
Angelina (text based on Goldsmith), produced in 1794, thus 
antedating Carr's Archers by two years. His songs are very 

^T H, . ii^n^iiiiiw '^^r w ijji un \^ m l^^l^j^^^^^' ' , ,,.y .!AM^r2L^ 


, ; Jt|iy iporr love _ ly eha Worn. A* * it ^i-^- wA*4r-;-/ 

I fear thut another, B0aoof*d r aay tiev tl 

My fteil it way fto iti fold pfet 
Tti, la binc y oae foTtnt* loveraty woo it, 
And 1 (1Kb when 1 itink Q! tit* b*itlfal f, 

*" " 

rt It deita t 

Go thf vi6 of atfcctioB fll ifilj fly j 
Pot whit ii tkTt iveeief thai foidly to 
WJmt iv d*r totkt htn.wl^t it f1t to 

smooth, flowing and lyric but seem to show less vigor, less dis- 
sonant character than those of Taylor. He developed the ac- 
companiment into an independent part, with a separate staff for 
the voice. Like others of his time he was much given to having 
the voice sustain one tone through two or three measures while 


the accompaniment took the melody an effect much beloved by 
Shield, Storace and all their school. 

Last of all comes Boston with Gottlieb Graupner, born in 
Germany 1767, who after spending a couple of years in Charles- 

r (8) /- 


... Sung vlth ''great applause t>y ;V '* 


in the Comedy .of the Honey Moon. 

Coapoted by , ! ! J. HRWITT, . 

NEWYOKK Friated* Sold at J. HF-WITTlS Kcpoiitory M? 69 WitJdei Lnr 

Andniir J* 


, ter ay !l'riflf ' foim W 

In vaiaihi; irxof anggiab flow, ja vain I teourn *i -*ID I fifb, fotr be Ufl will t. 

tapvihtt I nuiili^for bin or die. 

ton reached Boston in 1797 and was for many years her sole and 
final arbiter in all things musical, and remained her most prom- 
inent musician until his death in 1836. And, let it be noted, 
here for the first time Germany enters upon the scene. England 


is still predominant, but with Pelissier there comes a touch of 
French, with Graupner of German, although undoubtedly in- 
fluenced and modified by his seven years stay in London, for he 
had also been playing in orchestral performances there under 
Haydn, having been oboist in a Hanoverian regiment before 
leaving home. What a Mecca to musicians from all lands was 
London in those days ! Like many another coming to us from 
foreign countries, Graupner seems at once to have become inter- 
ested in the possibilities of negro song, and as early as 1799, at 
the end of the second act of Oroonoko in the Federal Street 
Theatre, he interpolated the song The Gay Negro Boy, given 
in costume and with banjo accompaniment. It is much to be 
doubted that this was an authentic negro melody; it was far 
more likely nothing but the ancient progenitor of those quasi- 
negro tunes with which the numerous minstrel troupes were to 
flood the country a few decades later. A better tribute to his 
musical worth and capabilities is that he should be called "the 
father of American orchestral music," from the fact that he 
gathered together the group of orchestral players who probably 
formed the nucleus of Boston's Philharmonic Orchestra which 
lasted for some fifteen years, a record for those times. 



George J. Webb, Charles E. Horn, Henry C. Watson, 

F. N. Crouch, William R. Bristow, Henry Russell, 

J. P. Knight, J. L. Hatton, Anton Philipp Heinrich 

("Father" Heinrich) , George P. H. Loder, Elam Ives, Jr., 

William A. King, Charles Jarvis, James Flint, 

George Henry Curtis 

WE have seen that since the Revolution, as before it, Eng- 
lish musicians continued to come to us, and we know 
something of their ideals and of their work in our midst. But 
of just what constituted the underlying popular consciousness, 
its uncertainty and confusion of thought, its recklessness and 
roughness of conduct such as always follow in the wake of war, 
of all this it is difficult to draw a definite picture. And yet it is 
seen in the music of the time. For this reason these years form 
what is in many respects one of the most interesting, if at the 
same time most crude, of all the earlier periods of our musical 
development. For this flood of commonplaceness flowed on in 
ever-increasing volume until it would seem that the possibilities 
of mediocrity were well nigh exhausted. One who goes through 
the files of the copyright songs of this period in the Library of 
Congress must stand appalled at the tawdriness of the musical 
output. Ballads of course predominated sentimental, comic, 
descriptive, Ethiopian ("nigger" songs), political campaign 
songs, ad infinitum! The worst offenders in bringing all this 
vulgarity before the public were undoubtedly the various "fam- 



ilies" the Hutchinsons, the Rainer, Barker, Houser, Bohannan 
and other families, the different miscellaneous groups such as 
the Alleghanians and the Moravians, and the numerous minstrel 
clubs. And yet after all we must not be too harsh in our judg- 
ments on these early efforts. There were glimpses of serious 
intent even here. It was not all coarse and vulgar or of a sickly 
sentimentality. There must have been some rather attractive 
singing by various and sundry of these organizations, and even 
the work of the minstrels themselves bore rich fruit in the songs 
of Stephen C. Foster. All this type of musical expression be- 
longed solely to the people it was racy of the soil, of every-day 
life and experience. Neither "Afr. and Mrs. Jones 9 Discussion 
on Dress, a comic Matrimonial Duett," nor Old Arm Chair would 
quite reflect the popular fancy of the twentieth century, nor the 
various songs "sung by Ossian Dodge at his fashionable enter- 
tainments throughout the Union" which came a little later, but 
they were probably true to the taste of their day. Along with 
these were the numerous and elaborate Odes, for the most part 
long and empty, but sometimes showing a real feeling for the 
dignity of their subjects, as in the case of Charles Edward 
Horn's Ode to Washington and George H. Curtis' Scena Re- 
ligiosa Absalom. 

Of those first missioners on our musical frontiers, mentioned 
above, Bremner, Selby, Reinagle and von Hagen have died, but 
others have come in their places. From England, George J. 
Webb in 1830, Charles E. Horn 1833, B. E. Woolf 1839, Henry 
C. Watson 1840, Richard Hoffmann 1847, F. N. Crouch 1849. 
Horn, composer of Cherry Ripe and I've been roaming, and 
Crouch, the talented but erratic composer of Kathleen Mavour- 
neen, came as mature men in their forties, Watson, writer and 
critic, at thirty-five, Webb in his twenties, Hoffmann at seven- 
teen, Woolf a mere infant. Each played his part, whether 
greater or less, in our musical upbuilding. 

1825-1850 31 

We should also note that there had come from England in 
1824 a young man of twenty-one years, William R. Bristow, 
organist, teacher, conductor, who in 1840 was organist at St. 
Patrick's Cathedral, New York, and publishing some excellent 
church music. His chief interest to us, however, lies in the fact 
that he was the father of George F. Bristow, of whom we are to 
hear much presently. In the thirties came Henry Russell, pro- 
lific writer of ballads, sea-songs and all sorts of descriptive songs 
of most vivid type, who spent some eight years here ; and J. P. 
Knight made us a visit of two years (1839-1841) leaving as his 
memorial that song still so dear to the heart of every basso- 
profundo, Rocked in the Cradle of the Deep (1840). J. L. 
Hatton (1848) also is remembered for his song The Protestant. 

But perhaps the most important event of this period is the 
distinct and definite entrance of Germany into the musical life 
of America. Otto Dresel, who first came to New York in 1848, 
at the age of twenty-two, as concert pianist and teacher, and 
after a brief visit in Germany made his permanent home in 
Boston where he died in 1890, was without doubt the most thor- 
oughly equipped musician who had as yet come to America, 
and his influence was as admirable as it was far-reaching. Wulf 
Fries, the 'cellist, twenty-two years old, had come in 1847, and 
the fourteen-year-old Frederic Brandeis from Austria followed 
in 1849, the former settling in Boston (died 1902), the latter 
in New York (died 1899). Building upon the foundations 
already laid by Graupner, these men helped to rear in the new 
world the stately and enduring edifice of German supremacy in 
musical art. 

In some ways even more vital to our particular study, how- 
ever, is the existence at this time of a group of young musicians, 
actually born in America and in that sense the first bona fide 
American musicians with whom we have come in contact, whose 
work now begins to come into view, available for study. But 


since their more representative and mature efforts do not appear 
until later, we will content ourselves for the present with the 
mere mention of their names : Wm. H. Fry, 1813-1864 ; Francis 
Boott, 1813-1904; J. M. Deems, 1818-1901; Richard Storrs 
Willis, 1819-1900; George F. Bristow, 1825-1898; Stephen C. 
Foster, 1826-1864 ; Lucien H. Southard, 1827-1881. 

We spoke a moment ago of the decisive entry of Germany 
into our midst. But hers was not the only foreign influence 
during this period. When English tradition and prestige ulti- 
mately gave way before the advance of Germany, it was but the 
final and happy outcome of many interesting skirmishes between 
various foreign musical influences, each trying to establish itself 
on American soil. From 1825 to 1832 something of Italian 
opera had been heard (mostly Rossini), and at times American 
interest seemed fairly divided between the English ballad operas 
and the French operas of Boieldieu and others. But in 1832 
through the efforts of the well-known Italian librettist, Lorenzo 
da Ponte, then living in America and who wished to give Amer- 
ica a chance to hear the best Italian operas worthily presented, 
a complete Italian opera company was brought to America with 
the result that there ensued a lively war between its partisans 
and those of the English ballad-operas. The Italians created 
great interest as can be seen from the many American reprints 
of Italian operatic airs during these years. There is no doubt 
that Italian fluency and lyricism had great influence and made 
themselves very much felt for a time ; but owing to the excellence 
of the English singers then in America and the traditional fond- 
ness of the American public for the English ballad-opera, the 
latter finally won out. That it should in its turn yield to the 
higher influence of the German type of music was inevitable. 
It was interesting and of value, however, that our early music 
should have added something of Italian grace, of French finesse, 
to its sturdy English foundation before coming completely 

1825-1850 33 

under that dominant German influence which in itself was one 
of the most striking phenomena of the nineteenth century. 

It is always interesting to get contemporary views of events 
that have passed into history, and we find an illuminating side- 
light upon these English-Italian cross-currents in the following 
excerpt from our earliest musical publication, the Boston 
Enter peiad, in its issue for December 30, 1820: "The English 
expect that sense is to hold equal if not superior reign with 
sound. They demand, particularly, a bold, plain, nervous elo- 
cution, freed alike from timid and from weak expression. They 
regard pure tone and articulation more than flowing execution. 
They ask a few graces, but these neither commonplace nor of 
vulgar structure. They wish to have their higher affections 
rather than their lower appetites moved and excited. Such are 
the attributes of the English school, properly so called .... 
English style, properly so called, is conversant with none of the 
modern arts of voluptuous insinuation. Purcell, Handel, A^ne, 
Jackson and Crotch are the most genuine English composers we 
have .... Their music produces none of the effects of Italian 
seduction. It is purely intellectual and adapted to manly senti- 
ment. Many contemporaries, Mr. Webbe, Dr. Callcott, Mr. 
Horsley and Mr. Attwood are of a sterling metal. Whilst 
most popular ballads .... are a mongrel breed, possessing 
neither the grace of their Italian, nor the strength of their 
English parents." 

And while we are in this reminiscent mood, let us make one 
further quotation, this time a letter, apparently from England, 
appearing in the Euterpiad (New York) for July 15, 1830: 
"What has become of our good old songs, which used to draw 
tears from every eye and inspire a kindred feeling in every 
breast? Who now will presume to ask for the fine heart-thrill- 
ing airs of the last century? What Miss at her piano or harp 
has ever heard of HandePs songs, or can play you a delicate 


morceau of Haydn, or a touching aria of the enchanting 
Mozart? Instead of these treasures, these gems from the deep 
mine of the heart, she will rattle you off I'd be a Butterfly, 
Love's Ritornella, Love was once a little Boy, and a whole 
rackload of Bayley's, Barnett's and Parry's vapid, childish, 
nonsensical stuff." With due allowance for time, place, and 
circumstance, hasn't this a strangely familiar sound? 

These years are made notable, as far as American publica- 
tion goes, by the first appearance in America of any song by 
Schubert issued by an American press. In 1847, published by 
Ferrett, Philadelphia, we find La Fillc du PecJieur, with English 
words, adapted from the French ! Surely a circuitous route for 
a simple Schubert song ! In 1848, Die Forelle appears as The 
Child, the Butterfly and the Rose, again from the French. 
Franz Abt also makes his American debut with When the Swal- 
lows homeward Fly. 

Before leaving this period, a national, almost international 
figure must be presented here. One hesitates to enter upon a 
discussion of this unique character, for a volume could scarcely 
do him justice, to say nothing of a paragraph! To anyone 
studying these particular years a strangely contradictory char- 
acter constantly appears and reappears. Simple, lovable in his 
personality, abstruse and a veritable megalomaniac in his music, 
one comes to take a surprising interest in this peculiar dual 
nature of "Father" Heinrich. Anton Philipp Heinrich was 
born in Bohemia in 1781, coming to America for the first time 
in the early eighteen hundreds, whither after several years in 
England and on the continent he returned and finally settled in 
New York. Here he poured forth his soul in those remarkable 
compositions which have been the amazement and despair of all 
who have studied them. He died in New York in 1861. 

Let us quote two characteristic titles: "The Ornithological 
Combat of Kings ; or the Condor of the Andes and the Eagle of 

1825-1850 35 

the Cordilleras. Comprising firstly the Conflict in the Air, 
secondly the Repose, thirdly the Battle for Victory on Land. 
Concerto Grosso Oratoriale. Orchestral with Vocal Illustra- 
tions." Second title: "Nee plus ultra, Yankeedoodleiad, 
Toccata Grandissima Americana. Dedicated to his Majesty 
Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia, etc. etc. etc." Was ever 
such grandiloquence ! Such na'ive and indiscriminate manufac- 
ture of nondescript words ! And these often coupled with per- 
sonal comments and explanations so simple and modest that they 
form a perfect antithesis both to the title that precedes and the 
music that follows. A strange combination ! 

Notice must also be taken of various men whose work ap- 
pears in purely fragmentary manner in the copyright issues of 
this period, and of whom we know little or nothing; yet who 
showed ability to do things out of the ordinary everyday way. 
Their names at least should not be forgotten. George P. H. 
Loder, brother-in-law of Henry C. Watson and Conductor of 
the New York Philharmonic Society, published in 1840 Touch 
Us Gently, Time and Ossians Glen, both skilful, musicianly 
songs. Elam Ives, Jr. (1802-1864?), one time Principal of the 
Philadelphia Musical Seminary, published at Philadelphia, 
probably in the late thirties or early forties, a sacred duet, 
Behold the Gentle Dctc, which is really good, with imitative work 
in the voice parts and an interesting accompaniment. William 
A. King, of English birth but whose musical career seems to 
have been made in America and who was organist at Grace 
Church, New York, for sixteen years, published in 1843 the 

song Love's Faith, in broad, effective ... /^ 

9 fluffy P ^ I i 

style, but with some peculiarly unvocal A * * | K I 

effects, as for instance: heav /^^ 

also an Ave Maria of his was sung at a concert given by the 
American Musical Association in New York, June, 1857. In- 
cidentally, it is interesting to observe the list of American com- 


posers represented in the programs of this Society in 1857 : 
Dr. Hodges, Bristow, Fry, Curtis, Mason, Pychowski, Homman, 
Willis, R. F. Halstead, W. A. King, A. Reiff, Jr., Appy, J. A. 
Johnson, Jerome, J. M. Deems, Siede, W. H. Walter. Many 
of these names have sunk into what is undoubtedly a well-de- 
served oblivion, but some of them we shall meet with later on. 
Charles Jarvis, prominent musician, pianist, and manager of 
high-grade concerts in Philadelphia for many years, published 
in 1846, at least in part, the romantic opera Lull, or the Switzer's 
Bride. He makes free use of accompanied recitative, simple in 
style, dignified in effect. Deign, Heaven, to hear my prayer 
is straightforward, genuine, with interesting use of the minor 
ninth. His arias show strong Italian influence. James Flint, 
otherwise absolutely unknown, published in 1848 an Anthem and 
Fugue of excellent construction. In 1849, George Henry Curtis 
published the song Come here, come here and dwell, harmonically 
notable from the fact that he made use of the mediant modula- 
tions then first beginning to appear. 

We have to chronicle during this period the death of those 
four mighty men of our early musical development Carr, 
Taylor, Hewitt and Graupner. Peace to their ashes. 



Dwight's Journal, Stephen Collins Foster, Wittiam H. Fry, 

George F. Bristow, Richard Storrs Willis, James M. Deems, 

Francis Boott, G. W. Stratton, George F. Benkert 

WITH these years we reach that remarkable migration to 
Germany on the part of our young American musicians 
which was to have such far-reaching results and so strongly af- 
fect the progress of American music for the next half century 
that all other influences seemed purely negligible. France and 
Italy had their few disciples, but they were as nothing when 
compared with those who sat at the feet of the German masters. 
And of course this was entirely as it should be. At that time 
there was nothing in the entire world of music comparable to the 
depth and vitality of the music of Germany, nor to the thorough- 
going methods of German teaching. Mendelssohn had but 
recently (1843) established the Conservatory at Leipsic whose 
influence upon contemporary music has probably never been 
surpassed. Its very conservatism was perhaps an element for 
good just then, for holding so firm a conviction that it possessed 
the one and only true light in music it could not well be other- 
wise than zealous and persistent in its diffusion; and even in 
consigning to outer darkness all corners not illumined by its own 
particular rays, it perhaps did the world a great service; for 
where was there a stronger or purer light, a beacon more helpful 
to the seeker after musical truth? The schools of music which 
soon followed the Berlin Conservatory in 1850, the Neue 



Academic der Tonkunst in 1855, and the schools in Dresden and 
Munich received their varying quotas of American students, but 
through it all Leipsic reigned supreme. Only very few serious 
students found themselves in Florence or Paris. 

Almost commensurate with this powerful influence abroad 
was that of Dwight's Journal of Music here at home. Perhaps 
it is not too much to say that the name of John Sullivan Dwight 
should be coupled with that of Theodore Thomas, as the two 
most influential individuals in America in our earlier days, in 
molding public taste, in elevating the standard of music in every 
possible way. The Journal of Music was founded in 1852 and 
continued until 1881. From its very outset Dwight endeavored, 
by precept and example, by letter-press and printed note, to 
teach the enlarging gospel of a true and lofty musical righteous- 
ness. Nor was he lacking in a very real newspaper sense of the 
value of personality in his magazine. He was vitally interested 
in all the musical doings about him, in the careers of serious- 
minded musicians everywhere, particularly of young Americans ; 
so that not only was the Journal of great interest and value to 
its contemporaries, but to us of today it furnishes a perfect mine 
of information. To anyone doing research work in American 
music of this time its files are invaluable. 

In his first issue (April 10, 1852) Dwight speaks of the re- 
markable musical progress made in America in the last fifteen, 
more especially the last ten years, i.e., from 1837 or 184?2 to the 
time of writing, 1852. He recognizes how "confused, crude, 
heterogeneous is this sudden musical activity in a young utili- 
tarian people." Yet we can find good omen in a program of 
songs by Schubert, Schumann, Mendelssohn, Fesca and Franz, 
quoted by him in a later issue of the same year. Fesca might 
seem a bit outclassed, but otherwise who can cavil at such a pro- 
gram, particularly in America in 1852? 

It can be imagined with what a warm welcome Dwight re- 

1850-1870 89 

ceived the first issue by an American house of the Schubert songs 
already noted. These were followed in 1853 by a Slumber Song 
(La Berceuse) and in 1855 Eulogy of Tears (Lob der Thrdnen) 
German at last! Also in 1855 appeared Mignon's Song and 
Am Meer. In 1850, thanks to Jenny Lind who apparently in- 
troduced them with such success that they found immediate pub- 
lication, there appeared three songs by Schumann (in German) : 
Wenn ich in Deine Augen seh\ Mein goldenes Ringelein and Die 
Rose, die Lilie; and in 1852, Widmung, published by Benteen 
at Baltimore. It has become the vogue recently to belittle, 
somewhat, the art and the personality of Jenny Lind. Should 
we not rather be deeply grateful to her for bringing to us in 
those formative days these fine examples of the very best in 
German song? And, at the same time, may we not sincerely 
congratulate ourselves that our audiences were musically far 
enough advanced to appreciate the real worth of these songs? 
In 1855 was issued the first Franz song, Ave Maria, and in 
1856, The Water Lily. The number of these German reprints 
was thus not great, but we could scarcely ask for better quality. 
It now becomes possible to sum up the careers of some of 
those young American musicians recently merely mentioned. Of 
these in some ways the most interesting is Stephen Collins 
Foster, who died in 1864, at the age of thirty-eight. The first 
song of his to appear in the copyright collection is There's a 
Good Time Coming which was issued in 1846, when the writer 
was but twenty years old. It was followed in 1847 by What 
must a Fairy's Dream Be, and in 1848, Stay, Summer Breath. 
These songs show no suggestion of that homely, pathetic, quasi- 
negro type which Foster was soon to make so peculiarly his own. 
But in the same year (1848) appeared Uncle Ned, Susanna 
and Away Down South, the first tentative beginnings of what the 
world has long since identified as the Foster type of song. In 
the very next year this became distinctive by the publication of 


Foster's Ethiopian Melodies, comprising Nelly was a Lady, My 
brudder gum, and Dolcy Jones. That he did not at this time, 
however, feel himself finally committed to this type is shown by 
Summer Longings, a simple but dignified song published in this 
same year (1849), followed in 1850 by Mary Loves the Flowers 
and The Voice of Bygone Days, in the first of which Foster goes 
far afield for him in harmonization, touching three or four 
different keys and even making use of sequence. On the other 
hand these were followed by Old Folks at Home, and in 1853 M y 
old Kentucky Home and Massa's in de Cold, Cold Ground were 
published. Dwight's Journal in its issue of October 2, 1852 
remarks that everybody is singing Old Folks at Home, little 
thinking, probably, that the same could be said with equal truth 
some three quarters of a century later! Still another zigzag 
and in 1854 we find in Jeanie with the Light Brawn Hair the 
almost inconceivable fact of a touch of coloratura in a Foster 
song! In 1857 appeared / See Her Still in My Arms in which 
occurs what seems the one and only bit of independent melodic 
writing in the accompaniment of any Foster song. 

As to Foster's place in the development of indigenous art- 
song it is difficult to speak. He seems to have been of a sensi- 
tive, introspective nature, to have written his own texts from 
such a sense of the difficulty of unifying words and music that 
he felt it necessary that both originate in the same source; and 
he seems to have worked over and over these original texts with 
the utmost pains. All this shows the spirit of conscious and 
conscientious art. Harold Milligan, in his study of Foster, 
probably speaks to the point when he says, "If art is an attempt 
of the human spirit to express itself in its relation to life, and if 
simplicity of means, as well as lucidity, are to be accounted 
artistic virtues, then Old Folks at Home must remain for all 
times one of the greatest achievements of musical art." And 
he also appears to have summed up this situation well in sug- 

1850-1870 41 

gesting that Foster's career is a good example of what happens 
when a musical temperament is associated with unmusical en- 
vironment. It is conceivable that had he been placed in more 
musical atmosphere, with better opportunities for musical cul- 
ture, he might have developed into one of our great writers in 
the larger, more elaborated art-forms. On the other hand, a 
genius is a genius, no matter where he may be placed; and we 
may probably best think of Foster as standing quite apart from 
the main current of conscious art-song with which we are prim- 
arily concerned, but with a dignity and worth all his own, the 
true embodiment of the spirit of our people in spontaneous song. 

A musician of very different type w r as William H. Fry, born 
in Philadelphia in 1813, died the same year as Foster, 1864. 
Aggressive, opinionated, egotistical, but also possessed of very 
real musical gifts, a skilful writer and critic, a man of the world, 
educated abroad, with six years in Paris where he was a friend 
of Berlioz, a brave fighter for his ideals, albeit at times a very 
quixotic one, perhaps the most quarreled with musician of his 
time in America, Fry is a fascinating study for any biographer. 
In the eyes of his contemporaries: "I should like him but dis- 
agree with him" (Dwight, 1853) ; "A splendid frigate at sea 
without a helm" (Willis, 1854) ; and in the eyes of us of the 
twentieth century, an inconsistent but magnificent fighter for 
the right, as he saw the right, in the musical affairs of his 

In 1854, Fry gave to the Musical World and Times (N. Y.), 
in its issue of January 21, of that year, a complete statement of 
his views on musical art, particularly as it concerned America. 
Here he pleaded for independence in our music, that we should 
follow no man's lead. It is a long, rambling thesis, yet of ab- 
sorbing interest in view of its time and place. In view, too, of 
later developments, it is interesting to read what he has to say of 
"mystic harmonies" and the like. He was probably the first in 


America to deliver a series of lectures on the history of the de- 
velopment of music. These were given in New York, on a lavish 
scale, to audiences literally numbering thousands. He made use 
of rich illustrative material, employing the best performers 
available for the purpose, even including a full orchestra. So 
great was the success of this venture that he was asked to repeat 
it in other cities. A man apparently of great personal mag- 
netism, it is perhaps to be doubted whether his learning in these 
matters was commensurate with his ambitions. But at any rate 
he made people think. 

His early opera Leonora, the first American opera of the 
modern type, although written years before and produced in 
Philadelphia, did not reach New York until March 29, 1858, 
when Fry was forty-five years of age. This opera is really a 
landmark in American music. Fortunately a complete copy 
still exists in the Library of Congress. Written along Italian 
lines throughout, it is dramatically conceived, with portions of 
very real power and effectiveness, and is apparently vastly 
superior to anything of its kind at that time written in America. 
For the most part its accompanied recitatives arc skilfully 
handled, although the arias follow the Italian custom in being 
generally overdecorated. There are, however, various excellent 
ensemble effects. 

A second opera, Esmeralda (Notre Dame dc Paris), was also 
first produced in Philadelphia, May 2, 1864, under the direction 
of Theodore Thomas. It is said that Patti volunteered to sing 
its chief role in Europe, but satisfactory arrangements could not 
be made for production there. Fry also wrote various sym- 
phonies and a Stabat Mater \ but, as far as we know, no detached 
songs. A duet (Cujus Animam) from the Stabat Mater is 
extant and shows his prevailing fault of overelaboration, al- 
though here too there are moments of true effectiveness. Fry 
seems always to have thought in the large. He might well be 

1850-1870 43 

called the American Berlioz, as there are striking points of 
similarity in their personalities and careers. It was apparently 
not for nothing that the two were real friends. 

The careers of William H. Fry and George F. Bristow seem 
always vitally associated although Bristow was born in 1825 in 
Brooklyn, where he died in 1898, thus outliving Fry by some 
thirty odd years. But their mature careers were essentially 
contemporary, and they were the two outstanding Americans of 
their time in the same field that of the symphony and opera. 
Yet two personalities more utterly unlike could scarcely be 
imagined. Where Fry was dominating, Bristow was almost 
timid; Fry egotistical, Bristow modest and self-effacing; Fry 
brilliant, dramatic, Bristow slow and plodding. And yet there 
is a solidity of workmanship in Bristow's best writing to which 
in all probability Fry never attained. There is now no oppor- 
tunity for studying the orchestral scores of either of these two 
men, and Bristow's opera Rip van Winkle (first performed in 
1855) is available only in part; all trace of his oratorio, Daniel, 
has disappeared, as also of the Cantata Niagara, performed 
shortly before his death by the New York Manuscript Society 
amidst great public enthusiasm. But there are preserved for us 
his oratorio Praise to God, Op. 33, performed in New York and 
published by Ditson in 1867, and many of his songs. The 
opera, Itip ran Winkle, shows his almost complete lack of any 
dramatic sense and in this respect is not comparable with Fry's 
work along this line. But his so-called oratorio (which is rather 
a setting of the text of the Tc Deum) probably goes deeper than 
anything of Fry's. It is scholarly writing of the Mendelssohn 
school and is technically very well done. As would perhaps be 
expected from such influence, it is not striking in its originality 
cither of conception or execution, but it is serious and worthy 
religious music. 

Perhaps the one clement in Bristow's music that still attracts 


us most is his keen sense of harmonic color. In the same first 
issue of Dwight's Journal from which we have already quoted, 
the editor, speaking of the changes that had taken place in 
music during the last few years, refers particularly to the im- 
portant modification of the modulatory scheme, now often turn- 
ing toward the mediant keys instead of always toward the 
dominant and subdominant as heretofore. Bristow, from his 
very earliest published work, makes skilful use of this novel 
modulatory procedure. His first song, Thine Eye hath Seen 
the Spot (1846), is a simple, genuine kind of song, but shows 
this unusual richness of color, passing through the keys of G, Bb, 
Db, and making use of the enharmonic C& Z)b in passing from 
the key of Z)b back to D. All of this was quite unusually rich 
and effective, a distinctly new note in American music of that 

Thine Eye Hath Seen the Spot Bristow 

gor - gcous sum - mer flowers, 

by na - hire's hand ar- 


uhcre our dear in 

The Welcome Back (1848) shows a similar modulation from A* 
to C. I Would I Were a Favorite Flower (1850) gives us a | 
climax chromatically introduced, that device so characteristic of 
German composers of the romantic school ; and Spring Time is 
Coming (1852) is also unusually effective in its climax by 


Spring Time is Coming Bristow 

Love-ly na - ture seems to fling All her charms With 



will - ing arms In the lap of bloom - ing spring.. 

reason of the strongly dissonant appoggiatura employed, and an 
interesting modulation is made from A to F. 


Spring Time is Coming Bristow 

J Ji I f~B f 

Her song of re - joi i n g to 



Note, too, the refinement of this progression from the intro- 
duction : 

r rr 

It is nothing to us today, but -at that time it meant much. 
Dwight reviews this song in his issue for November 6, 1852, re- 
ferring to the delicate charm of its melody and its picturesque 
and graceful accompaniment. 

Bristow studied with MacFarren in London. 

Another contemporary, but outliving both Fry and Bristow, 

1850-1870 47 

was Richard Storrs Willis, born in Boston, 1819, died in 
Detroit, 1900. Willis enjoys the distinction of having been the 
first American to go to Germany to study music. When he 
went in 1841, after his studies at Yale where he had taken a 
prominent part in all musical activities, the Leipsic Conserva- 
tory was not yet founded and he went to Frankfort-on-Main to 
study harmony and form with Schnyder von Wartensee. Later 
he had counterpoint and instrumentation with Hauptmann at 
Leipsic. On his return to America he was very influential as 
editor of various leading musical periodicals. It was he who as 
editor of the Musical World and Times (New York) in 1854 
opened its columns to Fry for his much-discussed confession of 
faith already referred to, with the result that the two men, look- 
ing at things from quite different angles, carried on a spirited 
newspaper controversy which lasted a long time, absorbed much 
paper and ink, and, as is usual in such cases, ended by leaving 
the two opponents exactly where they stood at the beginning. 
But it was highly stimulating to all concerned and probably 
worth while. 

Willis wrote numerous songs which appeared from time to 
time in his magazines, showing good taste and excellent work- 
manship. They were always simple and unpretentious. Per- 
haps Sleep, the Kind Angel is Near Me (1849) is as typical of 
his style as any, but note the unusual augmented triad. In 
the Musical World in 1859 he published a sort of song-cycle 
consisting of three songs, March, April, and May, having 
optional modulatory connections. The first is simple, with a 
good theme ; the second makes clever thematic use of the descend- 
ing form of the E major scale and has an interesting modulation 
from E to C; the third is more elaborate, with recitative and air, 
the former characterized by the excellence of its declamation. 
Willis' memory is kept green for us of today through his admir- 

(12) r/vw, _ 


Sleep the Kind Angel is Near Me Willis 



1. Soft - ly 1 rest on his bo - som, 
2 Death, the kind an - gel, is near me! 







Trust - mg in hopes that are o'er!. 

An - gel of balm and of 





able setting of It came upon a midnight clear still popular and 
much sung at Christmas time. 

Almost exactly contemporary with Willis, although of dif- 
ferent type, is James M. Deems, born 1818 at Baltimore, where 


May Willis 

Q fleet 

t. ad lib. 

- Jj'j'j,' 

Dream-like your beaa-ty, 

1 ' -1 7 * J! Jl 1 

Still, se-ques-tered 

1 V F PM^M- 



N J 

y ^rf 

J . } BT 

* ' R 


> J 1 . 1 

j -L 1 

V-i i 

f* \\ * 

groves! Your soft, spring 

ver-dure close -ly 
I r-trr^ 

1 J* * 

shuts me in. 

TI r~f- 


)! J * 1 




18 J 

j j i 

L ^ L lf 




$ * r [?y^^: 

Dense are these leaf-y 

shades, 'Mid float-ing clouds of loos-en'd 

"Til ; = : 


^ \L 

"***** . 



b^lM r = 

itP )- 




blos-soms and be - wil-der-ing Scents en - tranced I wan-der! 


he died 1901. He, too, studied abroad, wrote an opera Esther, 
as well as an unfinished opera, The Unbidden Guest, an oratorio, 
Nebuchadnezzar, also numerous instrumental compositions and 
songs. All traces of the larger works seem to have been lost; 
the songs remaining are of very light calibre, although in his 
first published song, May I Hope to Call Thee Friend (1844), 
with "cornopean and piano accompaniment," the cornopean part 




May I Hope to Call Thee Friend Deems 


In life sue- cess to. 




? JJ I J I 

' U 


Say may I prize thy val - ued name As__ 

ft ^ 

friend! dear friend to me, 

Say_ may I prize thy val-ued 

rt I 

7 n ^ v 




As friend, dear friend to me. 

is fairly independent, following the voice neither in melody nor 
rhythm, thus giving evidence of real ability and musicianship 
on the part of the composer. 

Contemporary with all these men, Foster, Fry, Bristow, 
Willis and Deems, even born the same year as Fry (1813) but 
dying in 1904, at the ripe age of ninety-one, thus forty years 
later than Fry and outliving them all, Francis Boott stands 
quite apart in every respect from this group of his contempor- 
aries. His only resemblance is with Foster, in that they both 
wrote nothing but songs, and that prolifically. Boott gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1831, later going to Italy for study (it will 
be remembered that these were the years in which Italian in- 
fluence was at its height in America, when the supreme effort 
was being made to supplant English opera ballad-opera with 
that from Italy. The only Americans who seem to have yielded 
whole-heartedly to this appeal were Francis Boott and later Har- 
rison Millard) . Boott studied with Picchianti at Florence and 
made his home in that city for many years, returning to America 
in 1875. During this time, however, various of his songs were 


published in America. The six songs appearing in 1846 under 
the pen name "Telford" are quite undistinguished. Somewhat 
better are the eight songs issued in 1857 under the general cap- 
tion, Florence, and comprising the following titles: Sands O' 
Dee (Kingsley), Stars of the Summer Night and The Night is 
clear and cloudless (Longfellow), Ring out wild Bells, and 
Break, break, break, on thy Cold Grey Stones, O Sea (Tenny- 

Sands O' Dee Boot! 

IrLlrl^ i'\ " 1 " J " r "1 

[ I* f J 1 

| J jl J =p=| 

3. Oh! is it 

A^mr t E= 

weed, or 

fish, or float - ing 

1 1 

9 I' F ^ 


SSfeihlJ j =4= 


Cl j 


^ | t | | J Js j ^ | | t =f= 

1 N I n 

-t --r f- -J - ^* t. h r f - - ! i. 1 
hair? A tress o 1 gold -en hair, O T drown-ed maid -en's 


* J ^ -sH - 

1 * 


^J b ^_^ L 

a | i i II Ji J , l_r 

1 ^ ' 

i . 


" H|i j. J J f 

hair, A - bovc the nets at sea? 

=ht 1 1 : K 1 = J 

1 r 


&^ A * j .-. ^-- P j 

tJ * ' -& 

^hrr-t 1 * 1 +* ^ P P 1 f- 

-+ j h 1 1 J 

-T^H * 1 d ^ fc K h*- 

* * M 

1850-1870 53 

son), From the Close-shut Window (Lowell), Battle of the 
Baltic (Campbell), and / am Weary with Rowing (author not 
given) . In the first of these songs, Sands 0* Dee, the constantly 
recurring three-fold repetition in the text is interestingly 
mirrored in the music, and the entire song is simple and effective. 
The songs in general, however, lack individuality, the quieter 
ones being distinctly the best. The accompaniments are com- 
monplace, with little harmonic interest. At times a bit of imita- 
tion arouses hope of some interesting treatment, but it is never 
carried to a finish. Dwight refers to these songs in his issue of 
June 13, 1857 as "not strikingly original, but graceful and 
facile, much to be preferred to the popular sweetish, sentimental 
type," an eminently fair appraisal. 

Boott's choice of texts, however, was always admirable, 
seeming to embrace the entire literary world the best English 
and American poets rubbing elbows with those of Spain, France, 
Germany and Italy, either in translation or the original form, 
thus betokening broad literary culture on the part of their com- 
poser. Some of the songs issued at a much later period, al- 
though probably written earlier than their published date, show 
increased ability, such as Gastibelza (from Victor Hugo), 1885, 
effective in its grim simplicity ; Jenny kissed me (Leigh Hunt) , 
1887, with a touch of imitation between voice and piano; and 
The Bell Buoy (Kipling), 1901, dignified, straightforward and 
catching well the spirit of the poem. 

Two other names should perhaps be mentioned here, G. W. 
Stratton and George F. Benkert. The former, in the fashion 
of his time, wrote "tragic operas" -and fairy operettas, besides 
many songs. These are of no outstanding value, and yet the 
man who in the year 1850 could write the following passage in 
the song My Heart's Queen, must havfe had something to say. 

Here was the duo-planed music of the future definitely fore- 
shadowed ! There is something decidedly heartening in the way 



in which these two themes march obstinately side by side, ignor- 
ing each other absolutely except for one rather wicked dig in the 
ribs! Another song, My Eidalie (1860) has an interesting 
postlude, and at one point a brief moment of individuality in the 
bass. The other songs are of no real consequence. 

George F. Benkert spent five years in Germany, and a Mass 
of his is said to have been performed with great success under 
Hellmesberger in Vienna, with orchestra and a chorus of a hun- 
dred voices. His chief importance in our eyes, perhaps, lies in 
the fact that he was the teacher of John Philip Sousa, who, ac- 
cording to Rupert Hughes, considers him one of the most com- 
plete musicians our country has ever known. His first song (at 
the age of eighteen), Look Not, is of no interest, while Pretty 
Jenny Wren of the next year, 1850, although simple, shows 
more individuality. Grilss Gott (1857) is a good, musicianly 
song containing some excellent part writing. 


1850-1870 (CONTINUED) 

Lucien H. Southard, J. C. D. Parker, Alfred H. Pease, 

Harrison Millard, Benjamin E. Woolf, Louis Moreau 

Gottschalk, B. D. Allen, J. Remington Fairlamb, B. J. Lang, 

Richard Hoffmann, S. B. Mills, Otto Dresel, Wulf Fries, 

Gustav Sailer, Frederic Brandeis, S. B. Schlesinger, 

Joseph Mosenthal, Karl Merz, Julius Eichberg, 

Frederick L. Ritter, Robert Goldbeck 

IT would seem that with the next group to be studied L. H. 
Southard, J. C. D. Parker, Alfred H. Pease, and their con- 
temporaries we may fairly feel that we have reached the real 
beginnings of art-song in America. In fact we might almost 
be tempted to say that American song begins with J. C. D. 
Parker's imaginative setting of Tennyson's Come into the Gar- 
den, Maud. Perhaps, however, that is too broad a statement 
to go unchallenged, too specific to be historically verified. But 
at least we may take it as our text. 

Lucien H. Southard (1827-1881) published his first song, 
David's Lament for Absalom, in 1848, at the age of twenty -one. 
While seriously treated and sincere, it fails to equal some of his 
later songs. The Little Sleeper (J. Clement), published in 
1852, is notable for its accompaniment which, contrary to all the 
custom of the time, is full (perhaps overfull) and elaborate. In 
fact it rather overbalances the voice part and tends to destroy 
the equilibrium of the song. But as hinting at the future de- 




velopment of the accompaniment in the modern art-song, it is of 
very real historical interest. 


The Little Sleeper Southard 


pew_ the days the fair one num - bered, Ere were 



closed his lus-trous eyesj And he calm - ly, sweet-ly 

"3 s 


slum - bcrcd, Like a cher - ub from the skies. 

tf Ff 

The song shows various artistic effects, such as slight imitative 
touches, refined harmonization, and the unusual effect at that 
time of the reentrance of the voice before the piano interlude 

1850-1870 (Continued) 57 

had finished. All these evidences of good taste and musicianship 
make it a notable song for its time. It is quite possible that this 
song and The Fountain (Lowell), 1855, might well challenge the 
distinctive place assigned above to Parker's song. No More (W. 
W. Story), 1858, has bits of graceful melody in the piano score. 
The Sands o 9 Dee (Kingsley), 1872, shows identical rhythms 
for the threefold repetition in the text, but not, as was the case 
in Boott's setting of this same poem, the same melody. The 
Tryst (S. P. Driver), 1873, has a charming four measure ob- 
bligato in the accompaniment, the whole song being simple and 
lyric. O Moonlight Deep and Tender (Lowell) makes use of 
the interesting progression from C to Ab, and is more varied in 
its expression than some of Southard's songs. The songs in 
general are characterized by delicacy and refinement, but show 
only the faint beginnings of modern harmonization and but 
slight attempts at independence in the accompaniment ; they are 
sometimes awkward in declamation, but always show dignity of 
style and true musicianship. 

As far as we know, J. C. D. Parker (1828-1916) wrote but 
the one song, Come into the garden, Maud (1855), which 
Dwight in his Journal calls "one of the most promising songs 
that we have seen by any of our young composers .... grace- 
ful and in the setting of the last verse, especially the last two 
lines, happy ; but the principal melody seems to us too light, and 
not to have seized the spirit of the words." Once more Dwight 
shows himself a discriminating critic, and with his final sentence 
might seem to have quite demolished our thesis. But, granting 
the justice of his criticism, there is so much to admire in the rest 
of the song, that it still seems reasonable to assign it to its high 
place. At the words "the woodbine spices are wafted abroad," 
the thinness and openness of the accompaniment, the graceful 
melodic line, and the use of secondary harmonies seem to give 
just the right atmosphere. 


Come Into the Garden, Maud Parker 

And the wood - bine spi - ces are 


waft-ed a -broad, And the musk of the ros - us blown, 


7 Y 


7 7 

) 7 7 



I 6 d rr 

t R R R 

{& ' gH- 
^ And 

Jf ^ aaq ^ 

-^ J U 

the wood - bine 

. h . ^=q 

| W--.' -jT - ff I 
spi - ces are waft - ed a - 

<fr" J ^ 

c7 * 

1 ^ ' '= 

7 tJ^ 7 7 


broad, And the musk of the ros - es blown, 

1850-1870 (Continued) 


And the entire stanza 

"There has fallen a splendid tear 
From the passion flower at the gate. 
She is coming, my dove, my dear, 
She is coming my life, my fate. 
The red rose cries, 'She is near' ; 
And the white one weeps, 'She is late 1 ; 
The larkspur listens, 'I hear'; 
And the lily whispers, 'I wait.' " 

is excellently interpreted, word for word, note for note. It is 
admirable music at any time; for the year 1855, and from a 
young American, it is notable. 


Come Into the Garden, Maud Parker 

Jf \tfi\\ 

PL, PPfff 

, * i m m 


gpfli n ' IL 

Mil |ii( U c-j 


^'K'f F ^ 

1 ? i / ^ ^ i-l 





fal-len a splen-did tear 

From the pas-si on flow'r at the 

*/ .i ^ / */ 

1 itg ' ' 

7 7 




Gome Into the Garden. Maud (Continued) 

A p cie^cendo ed acceleratido 

She is com-ing, my dove, my dear, 


She is 




com -ing, my life, my fate, 

The red rose cries, "She is 




near, SV? is near," And the white one weeps, "She is late,'l_ The 


lark- spur lis-tens/'I hear, I hear;" And the li - ly whispers, "I wait." 






a tempo 

jJ y ftJS 

v v 

1850-1870 (Continued) 61 

With Alfred H. Pease (1838-1882) , we come to the man who 
in one respect at least stands out from all his contemporaries 
in the lavish use of a vividly tinted palette. There is no one of 
his time in America whose harmonic fabric is so sensuously 
colored. At times it is even cloying, but one feels inclined to 
forgive this offence in view of the meagre tonal effects to be 
found elsewhere. In this regard he follows in the footsteps of 
George F. Bristow, but goes far beyond him. He also makes 
much use of sequence and sometimes shows an almost French 
feeling for the individual and characteristic qualities of second- 
ary harmonies. All these elements serve to take him quite off 
the beaten path of his time. If to these admirable qualities he 
could have added a keener feeling for dissonance, his harmonic 
effects would have gained enormously in vigor and intensity. 
As it is, he often charms, but rarely moves. Quite unoriginal in 
melody and rhythm, for the most part ineffective in his accom- 
paniments, with almost no use of obbligato melody, he still sur- 
prises us at times with unlocked for beauties in the score. Pease 
gives the impression of great natural talent (particularly in a 
harmonic sense), either quite undisciplined, or, perhaps, erratic 
and not sufficiently self -critical. But that he possessed unusual 
gifts cannot be denied. 

He spent some six years in Germany. In reporting to 
Dwight's Journal (June 8, 1859) on the various American 
students then in Berlin, A. W. Thayer refers to Pease, then 
studying at the Kullak Academy, and says he had met him once 
or twice, but never at the best concerts ! Of course that may or 
may not be illuminating. Sometime later, Robert Goldbeck, 
Editor of the Musical Independent, Chicago, in its issue for 
April, 1871, says, "There is no doubt that Mr. Pease is perhaps 
the most effective concert pianist our city possesses." In this 
connection we may note that he played his own Piano Concerto 
in E*> at an all- American concert given by Theodore Thomas in 



Philadelphia, July 19, 1876. Other numbers on the program 
were Fry's Pastoral Overture A Day in the Country and J. K. 
Paine's Symphony in C minor. We see that our composer- 
pianist finds himself in good company. In his issue for Novem- 
ber, 1872, Goldbeck says (referring this time to Pease primarily 
as a composer), "I believe there is a future for him. Experience 
is fast supplying the absence of former thorough study. Still 
we ought to remind Mr. Pease that he is not yet entirely free 
from crudities." In spite of these crudities and inequalities, 
however, the songs of Pease offer a most interesting field for 

Pease seems to have published his first songs in 1864, and 
from that time until his death in 1882 there was scarcely a year 
without some new song from his pen. His first published songs 
were When Sparrows Build (Jean Ingelow) and Blow, Bugle, 
Blow (Tennyson). In the latter song we see at once his fond- 
ness for the mediant harmonic relationship, for sequence and the 

(i9} Blow, Bugle, Blow Pease 



clear, And thin-ner, clear 

1850-1870 (Continued) 



How sweet and far, from cliff and scar, The horns of 







Elf - 


land faint - ly blow - ing. 



In 1865 came three of his most interesting songs: Stars of 
the Summer Night (Longfellow), with its smoothness and gentle 
lyricism, its rich color, its fleeting suggestions of obbligato mel- 
ody, even a touch of discreet dissonance; 


Stars of the Summer Night Pease 

Stars of the sum- mer night! Far in yon 


* MHV ^BBV t**^* P**^ 



= P 



az - ure deeps, Hide, hide your gold- en light! She 

J IffJlJ ?UJ_J ?|J^J T| 

sleeps! niy_ la - dy sleeps! sleeps!. sleeps! 



Tender and True, Adieu, with a more mediocre text than we 
ordinarily find with Pease, is still treated with very real skill. 
The rather extended prelude is romantic in spirit, exceedingly 
interesting and effective. It gives the key to the whole song. 

(21) Moderate 

Tender and True Adieu Pease 





1850-1870 (Continued) 


The recurrence of various motifs in the course of the song gives 
unity and cohesion. For its time it is distinctly a notable piece 
of work. In the third song, A Year's Spinning (Elizabeth 
Barret Browning), the inevitable descriptive elements are well 
handled. Good Night (T. B. Aldrich), 1866, is particularly 
happy in its use of secondary harmonies. The Cradle Song 
(Tennyson's Sweet and Low), 1867, makes use of an obbligato 
melody in the accompaniment. In Bells (Amelia B. Edwards), 
1869, we find one of those unlocked for, musicianly touches which, 
as we have said, crop out unexpectedly here and there in his songs 
in this instance the unusual and irregular stroke of the bells, 
which occurs on the first, sixth and fourth beat of a two-measure 
phrase in six eight time. It is as felicitous as it is unexpected. 
Unfortunately the melodic value of this song is slight. Of 1870 
there are two songs: first, a ballad, Darling, Kiss my Eyelids 
Down, interesting only as it follows in its structure a familiar 
Schubert model: major, parallel minor, relative major to this 
minor, original major in this case, A major, A minor, C major, 
A major; second, Dreamland (Sleep, Baby, Sleep, from the Ger- 
man), in which the composer makes free use of secondary 
sevenths. Douglas, Tender and True (Miss Mulock), 1872, 



shows a clever touch in that the interlude following the words 
"tender and true" is reminiscent of the melody accompanying 
these same words in the earlier song, Tender and True, Adieu. 



Cradle Song Pease 

I J J 



While my pret-ty one 



J 5 
r * - - 


7 Lot;^ ?n2/ Lov^ (Charles Mackay), of the same year, has elab- 
orate cadenzas, unusual in his songs, and O My Maid is Fairer 



Bells Pease 



/ qii 



1850-1870 (Continued) 


Still (also 1872) is a deft and buoyant arrangement of a Hun- 
garian air. Another setting of Sleep, Baby, Sleep, this time 
for two voices (1874), shows frequent use of sequence and a 
somewhat tentative obbligato in the accompaniment. Other 
songs issued in 1874* were O, if My Love would come to Me, 
simple, but catching the mood of the text better than some of 
his songs and with an arpeggiated accompaniment unusual for 



Oh, If My Love Would Come to Me Pease 



if my love would come to me, 





my hands and look at me, The while 

he lov-ing 




spoke to me, My life would so much bright-er be. 


also Love's Good Morrow, one of the composer's few florid songs. 
Just as of Old (1875) shows overuse of sequence, My Little 
Love (1878), intelligent appreciation of secondary harmonies, 
To the Queen's Health (Thomas Bailey Aldrich), of the same 
year, unusually vigorous rhythm and an eight-measure sequence. 
Slumber Sweetly, published in the very year of his death, 1882, 
discloses once more his fondness, perhaps overfondness, for se- 
quence. We shall have occasion to recur to this subject of 
sequence when we come to discuss the songs of Homer N. Bart- 

We find, then, in these songs of Pease many suggestions of 
the technique which was to come to maturity soon after his time 
more especially in his free use of deceptive cadence, of se- 
quence, pedal-point, and enharmonic modulation; less distinc- 
tively in his rather reserved treatment of dissonance, his slight 
employment of counter melody in the accompaniment, and of 
imitative work generally. But most vividly of all we have seen 
that love of romantic color which definitely sets him apart from 
his fellows and establishes his kinship with the future. 

Contemporary with this group, but apart from it, just as 
Francis Boott stood apart from the earlier group, is Harrison 
Millard (1830-1895), and for the identical reason that they 
both received their musical education in Italy. Millard was a 
professional singer and his songs are the songs of a singer rather 
than those of a musician. His first published song, The Kind 
Word (184-8), is of little or no significance. Beginning with 
this song published at the age of eighteen, there poured on 
through the years a ceaseless stream of songs. Varying some- 
what in value, but all built on substantially the same plan, these 
songs make no essential contribution to American song. With 
no harmonic interest, no individual piano score, they depend 
entirely upon their melodic line for any value they may possess. 
Mozart could on occasion write an air with the simplest possible 

1850-1870 (Continued) 69 

The Pretty Zingarella Millard 


Of -ten in Spain, the Zin - - ga - rel - la 

fry ff . /M\ 





Dan-ces with glee, to plain - tive_ tune. 


harmonization and the thinnest possible accompaniment, an air 
which would still sing itself down the ages; but unfortunately 
Millard was no Mozart. His songs, no doubt, fitted the temper 
of their time ; it is certain that they had a great vogue. On his 
return from Italy where he spent the years 1851 to 1854, he 
sang in concert, among other things, his own song La Domanda, 
which Dwight characterizes (November 10, 1855) as a "melody 
which well hits the average style of current Italian melody, and 
of course well suited to his own voice." In general that is a fair 
estimate of his large output of literally hundreds of songs. 

To this time also belong Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829- 
1869), B. D. Allen (1831-1914), J. Remington Fairlamb 
(1837-1908), and B. J. Lang (1837-1909), all excellent and 
influential musicians, the two last named with thorough Eu- 
ropean training, but none of them of any outstanding impor- 
tance in the development of American song. 


Aside from this group of native-born Americans there are 
still some coming from across the sea. England who played so 
predominant a role in our earlier musical development is now 
much less fully represented, while the influence of Germany con- 
stantly increases. From England came Richard Hoffmann, 
born 1831, coming to America 1847, died 1909; B. E. Woolf, 
born 1836, America 1839, died 1901 ; S. B. Mills, born 1838, 
America 1859, died 1898. Richard Hoffmann and S. B. Mills, 
while distinguished in other directions, have no decisive bearing 
upon our particular subject. If they wrote any songs they 
have been lost sight of in the greater significance of their work 
along other lines. Benjamin E. Woolf, however, along with his 
other musical and literary activities, wrote numerous songs. 
Coming to America at three years of age, he is perhaps rather 
to be classed among the native Americans than as an outsider. 
His songs show musical feeling and refinement of style, which 
unfortunately often outrun his technical ability. He was ap- 
parently fond of independent melodies in the piano score, which 
he used with considerable skill. How Many Times Do I Love 
Thee, Dear (1884) is probably his best song. It is of interest- 
ing texture, simple and sincere. Love Song of Har Dyali 
(1894) shows oriental color, with a characteristic motif running 
throughout the song. Forever (1894) is also characterized by 
a recurring motif based on the first phrase of the voice part, 
thus imparting unity to the song. 

The list of those coming from Germany at this time is a long 
one, headed by Otto Dresel, to whom reference has already been 
made. That a man of his recognized high standing, a pupil of 
Hiller and Mendelssohn, an intimate friend of Robert Franz, 
with all the idealism of a cultured German musician of that time, 
should come to America and give himself so devotedly to the task 
of helping her along the rough path of her musical development, 
was worth more than we can well express. His almost forty 

1850-1870 (Continued) 71 

years in Boston furnished an influence second to none in making 
her the musical centre that she became. He wrote only some 
twenty songs all told, but all are of a high order. In 1855 ap- 
peared two songs, both written under rather interesting circum- 
stances. Sweet Echo, Sweetest Nymph, text from Milton's 
Comus, was written, Dwight says (August 18, 1855), "to help 
out a parlor performance of the Mask by some young people in 
one of our cultured families." He characterizes the song as 
"refreshingly pure and true in the way of songs," which it cer- 
tainly is; dignified, sincere, and particularly effective in its 
appropriate use of the echo motif. The second song, a setting 
of Tennyson's Sweet and Low, won the first prize of two hundred 
dollars in a great competition of some four hundred entries, 
which called forth the sardonic scorn of our friend Dwight be- 
cause of its democratic method of procedure, in that the prize 
winner was not determined by the vote of competent judges but 
by what amounted to universal suffrage. Under these circum- 
stances we are rather inclined to share his surprise that the best 
song won ! He quite vindicates his position by noting that the 
song that won second place, My Gentle Mother's Song by C. C. 
Converse, was "commonplace enough," and that the really next 
best song, The Baby, by B. D. Allen, received but one vote. In 
1858 appeared Dresel's setting of Come into the Garden, Maud, 
and it is interesting to compare it with Parker's setting (1855) 
which we recently considered. Incidentally, how appealing these 
Tennyson texts seem to have been in those years, and naturally 
enough. Imagine the zest of setting such poems in the first 
bloom of their appearance, before time has staled their fresh- 
ness. These two settings are so entirely different, however, that 
it is difficult to compare them. Where Parker's is "through- 
composed," Dresel's is strophic ; and of course this fundamental 
difference in treatment influences the entire result. Dresel's 
setting is lyric throughout, even going so far as to omit in its 


entirety the dramatic stanza which forms the emotional climax 
of Parker's song. Dresel's first melody (in this case the pre- 
vailing one) is much more appropriate to the text than Parker's, 
yet the cadence of the first stanza, "I am here at the gate alone," 
is much inferior. Dresel, however, makes excellent use of altered 
harmonies, with a skilfully managed sequence in which the mel- 
ody remains constant while the harmonic progressions vary. The 
accompaniment is pianistic throughout, with arpeggios in sixths 
and such like. DresePs songs were gathered together in one 
volume and published by Breitkopf and Hartel in 1892. 

From Wulf Fries, 'cellist, member for twenty-three years of 
the well-known Mendelssohn Quintette Club which did so much 
to make the better class of chamber music known in America, 
and who came to America in 1847, the year before Dresel, only 
one song has come down to us the ballad By the Stream a 
Youth was Sitting (Der J tingling am Bache). It is distin- 
guished for its use of imitation in the bass of the accompani- 
ment. Also Gustav Satter, the able pianist and eccentric 
gentleman, who spent parts of the years 1854 to 1860 in America 
and who wielded much influence through his piano playing, 
published two songs, Constancy, Op. 11 (1856), and Cicily, 
Op. 12 (1857). The former is particularly rich in its harmon- 
ization, making effective use of enharmonic modulation, and has 
a rousing | climax. In the latter song the composer very skil- 
fully reflects in the accompaniment the words "Up, up, up in 
the sky." The punctuation and idea of gradual ascent are 
picturesquely delineated. In Six Songs, published later in 
Vienna, Satter still more fully discloses his very real musician- 

The influence of these two men was of course merely a fleet- 
ing one as compared with that of Dresel or others whose output 
was larger. Frederic Brandeis, coming to America from Vienna 

1850-1870 (Continued) 


in 1849, published in 1852 a song, Was it a Crime to Love Thee, 
which is a really remarkable song for a youth of seventeen. The 
harmony is interesting, the accompaniment individual. Lady 
Bird, Op. 66, No. 1 (1881), 
is a fittingly dainty song, with 
rather unusual use of the 
seventh on the second degree 
and an accompaniment figure, 

rendered notable by the novel use of the repeated e in the left 
hand. The Miller's Daughter (Tennyson), 1883, shows a 
graceful, pianistically effective postlude, cleverly based on the 
theme of the prelude, but in diminution. My Love is Like the 
Red, Red Rose, Op. 26, (Burns), 1886, has a rich, full piano 
score, the accompaniment sometimes following the line of the 
voice, sometimes giving nothing but supporting chords, but 
always with distinctly clever craftsmanship. Brandeis is fond of 
long postludes, interesting in themselves, but dangerous to the 
unity of the song. 

A year later than Brandeis, in 1850, Sebastian Benson 
Schlesinger, born in Germany in 1837, came to America as Ger- 
man Consul; he died in 1917 in France. While in America he 
took an active part in musical affairs and wrote many songs 
which are entirely typical of the time. Well written, according 
to the prevailing idioms of the day, they strike no individual 
note, and are no better, no worse, than many other contemporary 
German songs, for German they are to the core. Perhaps his 
most successful song, according to present-day standards, is the 
setting of Lingg's Immer leiser wird mein Schlummer (im- 
mortalized by Brahms), one of his earliest songs, 1882. While 
not realizing in any sense the poignancy of the text, it yet shows 
refined feeling and delicacy of line. 

In 1853 came Joseph Mosenthal, born in 1834? at Kassel, 


died, New York, 1896. Mosenthal had been a pupil of Louis 
Spohr and was a well-trained musician. The few songs of his 
which we know, as for instance, the Three Songs (1869) : 
Heavenly Rest on Earth Dcscendeth (Reinick), Spring Has 
Newly Come to Greet Us (Otto Roquette), and We Wandered 
through the Flow'ry Vale (Titus Ulrich) show good craftsman- 
ship and an interesting feeling for harmonic color, and, particu- 
larly in the last named, fancy and imagination. 

Karl Merz (born in Germany, 1836, died, Wooster, Ohio, 
1890), came to America in 1854. Through his teaching and 
editorial work he made a truly valuable contribution to his time ; 
a fact which one would scarcely suspect from his songs which 
were of the then prevailing type, ballads, waltz-songs, Scotch 
and Tyrolean songs, and the like. Occasionally he gave of his 
best in songs more true to the German ideal, such as / dream of 
Thee (1857) and Stranger's Love (Des Fremden Liebe), 1858, 
which though simple, almost elementary, are at least dignified 
and sincere, free from the trivialities that so often mar his other 
songs. Deserted (1873), dedicated to Annie Louise Gary, is 
one of his better songs, with expressive use of the minor ninth. 

The year 1856 brought two men of outstanding ability and 
influence, Julius Eichberg and Frederick Louis Ritter. The 
former, born in Diisseldorf, 1824, died, Boston, 1893, was dis- 
tinguished primarily for his light operas his Doctor of Alcan- 
tara having had a phenomenal success; the latter, best known 
as teacher and writer, still found time to write many worth-while 
songs. Ritter was born at Strassburg, 1834; and died at 
Antwerp, 1891. His songs are always true to the German type 
and show a decided Brahms influence. His early song Elf en- 
liebe, Op. 4 (1867), betrays this influence unmistakably in the 
simultaneous use of two conflicting rhythms six beats in the 
voice part against four in the accompaniment and this opposi- 
tion reappears in a peculiarly Brahmsian manner in the post- 

1850-1870 (Continued) 75 

lude. Of his Six Songs, Op. 6 (1870), the last three are the 
most interesting. Die WasserlUie (No. 4) has a powerful imi- 
tative climax in the middle and an attractive echo effect at the 
close, the voice ending in the minor, echoed by the accompani- 
ment in the major. Bitte (No. 5) is excellent in its free decla- 
mation, while Kriegertod (No. 6) makes use of a galloping 
rhythm which is given a touch of originality by beginning off 
the beat instead of on it. The first two of Fiinf Lieder, Op. 10 
(1876), are both good. Der schwere Abend is again like Brahms 
in its modified strophic form and syncopated bass, while Ruhe 
in der Geliebten reminds us of Mendelssohn and Schumann in 
the use of a compact accompaniment which closely follows the 
voice. There is a piece of admirable part-writing in the middle 
section of the last stanza, where three distinct melodies are inter- 
woven, the accompaniment here being richly scored and entirely 
differentiated from the voice. The second of Four Songs, 
Op. 20 (1888), At Thy Dear Feet Let me Lie shows one of 
Brahms' favorite devices in the expansion of the cadence at the 
end of the second stanza. Indeed it is a song, technically at 
least, after Brahms' own heart, for it also alternates J and g 
rhythms and is written in modified strophic form. In all these 
devices we see the skilfully trained musician. The workmanship 
is excellent, the songs attractive. It is only on the harmonic 
side that Ritter seems deficient, for his harmonization, while 
often interesting enough, is rarely outstanding. 

In 1857 came Robert Goldbeck, born in Prussia, 1839, died, 
St. Louis, 1908. He was a nephew and pupil of Louis Kohler. 
His best songs are perhaps his settings of the two well-known 
Tennyson texts, The Splendor FaUs on Castle Watts (1866) 
and Break, Break, Break on thy Cold Grey Stones, Sea 
(1870). In the former song his innate feeling for freedom of 
form is of great advantage in producing appropriate dramatic 




The Splendor Falls on Castle Walls- Goldbeck 

J 1 J' J 1 PI T' II i ({I 1 ^ i! 


The splen-dor falls on cas-tle walls and snow-y sum-mits old in 


J J. 

J j J 

sto - ry; The long light shakes a- cross the lakes and the 

wild cat- a-ract leaps in glo - 

- ry! 

His alternation of |, | 5 and J time is the first instance of such 
rhythmic freedom noted in American song. In fact this rhyth- 
mic variety persists throughout the entire song. In Break, 
Break, the prelude well establishes the mood, and recurs as 
interludes, and as a postlude. That Goldbeck had a feeling for 

1850-1870 (Continued) 77 

dissonance well in advance of his time is shown in his fearless use 
of e^ against an F minor harmony. Two songs to texts by 
Lowell and Longfellow (1870) are somewhat less successful, 
although The Day is Cold and Dark and Dreary is excellent in 
its mood expression, and Moonlight, Deep and Tender has 
some interesting harmonic progressions. In general, Goldbeck's 
songs are characterized by freedom of form, with numerous 
quasi-recitative passages, tending sometimes to awkwardness, 
lack of symmetry and unity, but often toward distinctly dra- 
matic effect. His melody frequently shows chromatic character, 
though there is no real chromaticism in the essential harmony. 


J. K. Paine, Dudley Buck, Homer N. Bartlett 

BORN the same year with Goldbeck are two well known 
American composers J. K. Paine (1839-1906) and 
Dudley Buck (1839-1909). With the former, orchestral writ- 
ing worthy the name first had its beginning in America; with 
the latter the same may be said as regards church music. Paine 
wrote few songs, Buck many. In fact, with Buck the flood- 
gates of American song were opened and the deluge was upon us. 

With Paine's orchestral writing we have nothing here to do 
except to pay tribute to the first American to do work of this 
type of really large calibre and solid workmanship. Of his few 
songs, representing probably the least of his musical interests, 
we shall, however, take brief notice. There are eight songs in 
all four, Op. 29 (1879-1889) and four Op. 40 (1885). 

His Matin Song, Op. 29, No. 1 (Bayard Taylor) 1879, is 
in its way a very remarkable little song. With the voice part 
only eighteen measures long it comprises within these limits 
twelve measures of absolutely different rhythms. Only the six 
remaining measures are permitted to show any rhythmic re- 
petition. The result is a melodic line of great interest and 
spontaneity. Harmonically, the song is undistinguished. / Wore 
Your Roses Yesterday (Celia Thaxter), second of this group, 
is delightfully lyric and graceful, with the piano score made 
interesting by its unobtrusive but attractive imitative effects, 
while Early Spring-time, Op. 29, No. 3 (Rev. Thomas Hill), 
1879, interests us in an entirely different way, and for its time 




seems very revolutionary. In the first place, its text is prose 
plain prose and while it has to be admitted that Paine has not 
handled this unwonted declamation with complete success, still, 
as we should expect, there are measures of very real dignity and 
effectiveness. The curious thing about the song, however, is 

(27) Andante con moto 

J wore your Roses Yesterday Paine 

I wore your ro - ses yes - ter-day. A 

bout this light robe's folds of white, Where- 

in their gath - cred sweet - ness lay, Still 



clings lhcir_ per - fnme, per- fume of dn- light. 

Copyright, 1879, by O. Ditson & Co. 

that each of its two identical stanzas begins in C$ minor, ends 
in E major, and then is left suspended in mid-air with a piano 
postlude ending in the unresolved dominant of the original C* 
minor! This from Paine, in America, in 1879. The Bird upon 
a Rosy Bough, Op. 40, No. 1 (Celia Thaxter), 1884, is more 
conventional in treatment, but is of interest by reason of its rich 
and sonorous piano score. 

With Dudley Buck we enter upon the subject of song in 
America in its comparatively modern aspect, with all its nine- 
teenth-century characteristics. And just as a moment ago it 
seemed the natural thing for one reason or another to bracket 
the names of Fry and Bristow, so in similar fashion there is a 
name that naturally associates itself with Buck, that of Homer 
N. Bartlett (1845-1911). The songs of both these men are so 
numerous that now for the first time in America we find oppor- 
tunity for quantitative as well as qualitative study ; and we may 
well consider that it was through their facility and fluency of 
expression in this form that, for better or for worse, song-writing 
in America became an ordinary rather than an extraordinary 

Dudley Buck's first published song appeared in 1868, 
Homer N. Bartlett's in 1873, and from that time until practic- 
ally the close of the first decade of the present century both 

1870-1880 81 

remained prolific song-writers. This was particularly true of 
Bartlett whose opus numbers reached well into the second hun- 
dred, a dangerous circumstance it must be admitted, for where 
there is such voluminous output there is sure to be inequality of 
values ; and this is strikingly true of Bartlett's songs. But there 
is still something impressive in the mere fact that one's creative 
faculty should work so unremittingly, and that there should be 
a waiting public for so much iterated and reiterated expression 
of one's individuality. And if one is willing to sift this mass of 
material he will find certain songs of very real interest. 

In the study of Bartlett's songs the characteristic that strikes 
us first, last and all the time is his inordinate fondness for rich 
harmonic color in connection with overfrequent use of sequence 
in both points reminding us of Alfred H. Pease. That he 
could, however, use this vivid coloring with just restraint is 
proven in Her Voice to Me, one of his best songs. In the songs 
of Dudley Buck we discover evidence of an entirely different 
temperament. In place of these rich harmonic sequences, at- 
tractive in themselves but repeated almost ad nauseam through- 
out the mass of Bartlett's songs, we find in Buck's songs an 
equally persistent idiom, but in his case manifesting itself in a 
constant restlessness of rhythm, with never any sustained effect 
in the accompaniment, seldom even in the voice. The earlier 
songs are characterized also by the use of most conventionally 
stereotyped patterns in the piano score ; indeed this style of writ- 
ing continued for some thirty years. Not until 1900, or later, 
was there any perceptible sign that these outworn, unoriginal 
formulae were in process of dissolution. Only in the setting of 
Hamlet's Soliloquy, To be or not to be (1903), do we begin to 
see something of imaginative treatment, something of flexibility 
of style. 

A point of interest in regard to these two men is their oppo- 
site tendencies in the treatment of religious texts. In the case 


of Dudley Buck we find his very best work in this field, while 
with Bartlett the reverse is true. With Buck, his innate feeling 
for the organ, for the beauty of its smooth, sustained style, 
effectually modified his ordinarily abrupt, declamatory mode of 
speech, and gave to his sacred songs a dignity of expression 
often lacking in his secular writing. On the other hand, Bart- 
lett's religious songs are for the most part just what church 
music ought never to be florid, ornate, the text and its setting 
poles apart in every respect. As showing him at his worst in 
this respect, we may note the lack of taste shown in the numerous 
scales, arpeggios and technical pyrotechnics of every sort which 
accompany the text of Nearer My God to Thee, one of his 
earlier settings (1883) . It may be said with something of truth 
that he was merely conforming to the fashion of his time; all 
the more honor, then, to Dudley Buck for rising so far above it. 
Naturally Bartlett's later work showed improvement, but he 
never succeeded in writing a truly sympathetic, churchly song. 

Taking into account the quantity and quality of their work, 
these two writers were undoubtedly the leading song-composers 
of their time in America. They each published more than fifty 
songs, far and away more than any of their contemporaries. It 
is probable that their methods varied as did their temperaments. 
Buck, we know, in his later years revised many of his earlier 
songs and presumably wrote with care and the requisite leisure ; 
Bartlett seems to have written uninterruptedly, song after song, 
on much the same pattern. 

If we take up their songs somewhat in detail, we find in 
Buck's first published song, WJiere are the Swallows Fled? 
(Adelaide Proctor), Op. 36, No. 1 (1868), perhaps his most 
successful use of conventional accompanying material, most suc- 
cessful because the simplest. Also the first part of this song, as 
often in Buck's songs, shows excellent declamation in the sense 
of a melody well adapted and appropriate to the text, although 

1870-1880 83 

Where are the Swallows fled? Buck 

hid his rays, 

Fro- - zen and dead, 

These ma - ny days, 

often far from correct in its precise diction. In this latter re- 
spect many of Buck's earlier songs are decidedly weak. Sunset 
(Sidney Lanier), Op. 76, No. 4 (1877) has a broadly treated 
opening melody. His setting of three Stedman poems, Thou art 
Mine, Shadow Land, and 7 Love Thee, Op. 79 (1878, 1881), 
show appropriate and effective melodies, but Buck's lack of origi- 
nality and freedom in harmonic effects discloses itself more baldly 
in these earlier songs. The Bedouin Love Song ( Bayard Taylor) , 
Op. 87, No. 2 (1881) is somewhat more successful, probably be- 
cause Buck's strong rhythmic sense finds itself better adapted 
to such a text ; and with this incentive, even his harmonies sug- 
gest a greater freedom. The three Offertories, Judge Me, O 
God, Blessed are they, and Ye that Hear, Op. 91 (1882), 
make clear how great is our debt to Buck for his dignified treat- 
ment of religious texts. The Five Songs for Mezzo Soprano 



Sunset Buck 

Copyright, 1877, by O. Schirmer 

(1893) show a perceptible gain in flexibility in the accompani- 
ment. It seems reasonable to suppose that his organ accom- 
paniments for the sacred songs just mentioned, with their 
independent treatment of the accompanying instrument, may 
have called his attention to the inferiority of his piano accom- 
paniments. At any rate from this time on he began to show 



improvement in this respect. In No. 2 of this series, Love's 
Remorse (Boyle O'Reilly), Buck makes a beginning in the use 
of obbligato melody in the piano score. No. 3, Alone (T. S. 
Collier), shows some thematic feeling in its cadence; while No. 4, 
Spring's Awakening (Mary E. Blake), with its elaborate recita- 
tive section has an accompaniment quite free in style ; 

Spring's Awakening Buck 
(30) atempo . y^-i 

it sighs the bare boughs 



- fret, 

As it sighs the bare boughs fret: 


Copyright, 1SV*3, by G.Schirmer, Inc. Renewed , 19'JI , by Helen B. Buck 

unfortunately, however, the harmonization is still far from orig- 
inal or interesting. No. 5, Crossing the Bar (Tennyson), has 
even a touch of counterpoint in the piano part. This improve- 
ment continues with / Will Lay Me Dozen in Peace (from The 
Triumph of David) which shows something of chromaticism. In 
Boots and Saddles (Edna Proctor Hayes), 1901, we find much 
greater freedom in the harmonization, and once more, as in the 
Bedouin Love Song, a text favorable to Buck's rhythmic style. 
We find, too, an excellent feeling for appropriate and interest- 
ing psychological treatment. The form is free, a sort of super- 
recitative, dramatically conceived. The declamation is still 
carelessly treated, however. 


Boots and Saddles Buck 

1 P. v '* 

3r this one 

God make me 

blind for 



makemeon-ly hear The hur-ry-mg 




drum, that cry, "they corne!" 

Cop>npht, lyOJ, b> G Sthirmrr 

Until God's Day (Frank L. Stanton), 1901, and To be or not 
to be (1903) give further evidence of Buck's increasing freedom 
of expression, the latter showing skilful declamation and appro- 
priate recitative style. Only Buck's unfortunate habit of over- 
repetition mars at times this otherwise admirable setting. With 
Shakespeare's It was a Lover and his Lass, Frank L. Stanton's 
De Gray Owl, and A Life Picture (Clarence Umbry) all of 
1904 we seem to see almost entire recovery from the com- 
poser's early stiffness of manner, for here the piano score is 
exceedingly free and spontaneous and colorful, the whole con- 
ception more vivid and picturesque. 


Spring Song Buck 

Copyright, 1904, by G. Schirmef 

It has become increasingly apparent that there was little of the 
mystic, the poet, in Buck's personality, arid the lack of any 
subjectivity in his songs is their most fundamental defect; but 
throughout his entire work there appears a certain straightfor- 
wardness, a virility of expression, which in the end makes its own 



very distinct appeal. Apparently there is no pose, no affecta- 
tion of any sort, either in the man or his music. 

The songs of Homer Bartlett differ from those of Buck in 
many respects; in fact the two types are quite antithetical. 
Where Buck's harmonic sense seemed often barren and sterile, 
Bartlett's was oversaccharine. Where Buck's rhythmic sense 
showed itself keen and virile, Bartlett's was often sluggish, inert. 
Buck made almost no use of sequence, that favorite device of all 
romantic writers; Bartlett overused it until it became nothing 
more than a mechanical trick, a mannerism. We find this fact 
exemplified in almost his first published song, Moonbeams 
(1876). Here we have an excellent first subject, but a super- 
fluity of sequence and an absurdly passionate outburst on the 
far from dramatic concept "Social hearth" ! 

Moonbeams Bcirt lot t 

so-cial hearth, ToplayVound the so 
A * 

- cial licartb. 


Hx to unto 



Copyright, 187T>, by G. Sihirmcr 



It took Bartlett a long time to overcome this early tendency to 
theatricalism, this indiscriminate flamboyancy of style. With 
Come to me, Dearest (Joseph Brennen), 1887, there appears a 
marked change of manner, unfortunately more or less tempor- 
ary, so that one cannot escape the conviction that for a season 
our composer's writing must have come under the supervision or 
at least friendly criticism of some discriminating musician. We 
find in this song extensive use of the chord of the seventh on the 
second degree over a dominant pedal-point, a distinctly new de- 
parture for Bartlett, and even some contrapuntal writing in the 
piano score. 

Come to me, dearest Bartlett 

1. Come 

2. Come, 


fo_ me,dnr - ling", my sor - rows to light - en, 
for_ nty heart in your ab - sence is we a - ry, 


Come in _ (liybcau - ty to bless and (o bright - en, 
Hark, for_ my spir - it is sick- ened and drear - \, 


Copyright, IHH7, by G. S hirrn* r 

/ Hear the Brooklet Murmur (1887) shows the same char- 
acteristics, harmonies rich but not overrich, extensive use of 



secondary sevenths. In 1891 appeared Fairy's Slumber Song 
(Katherine Lee Bates), Op. Ill, in some respects the best of 
his songs, with interesting modulatory material and effective 
sequence, this time not used to excess. 

Fairy's Slumber Song Bartlett 

me, From fa ir-y dance to 

In lil-y-cup I'll nest 


me, For the sil - ver moon dips low, 




soon would the gob - lins swart mo -lest me, 



II ii 

Copyright, 1891, by O. Schirmer 

Autumn Song (Mrs. F. Hemans), Op. 121 (1893), brings 
us Bartlett's first use of the diminished octave 

An Autumn Song Bartlett 


j. H 


Her flow- ing tresses on the ground, 

Copyrigtt, 1S93, by Oliver Dition Company 



of which he makes frequent use in later songs. Dearest Robin, 
Op. 134, No. 2 (1894), is written in the manner of an old Eng- 
lish air and is appropriately and skilfully worked out. With 
Contemplation, Op. 134, No. 3 (1894), we revert to the scheme 
of elaborate harmonization, with sequences of seventh chords, 
use of the diminished octave harmony, and an interesting inter- 
lude, later used to accompany the voice. Gray are Love's 
Gentle Eyes (Margaret Deland), 1895, is arch, buoyant, but 
once more shows too great use of sequence. In Canst Thou 
Forget (P. S. Munroe), 1898, we have a virtual epitome of 
Bartlett's style, with its tendency to overrich harmonization, its 
too frequent ninths and sevenths with appoggiaturas doubled 
and long drawn out, its simultaneous use of double and triple 
rhythms in sum, its overelaboration. 

Canst Thou Forget so soon? Bartlett 

( o7 / 

And now, ah! tell me, tell me tru 

Have 1 then loved thee but un - du 


con espr. 

So soon canst thou for 

Copyright, 1898, by G. Schirmcr 
In the second stanza of God Keep you, Dearest (1899) the piano 
score lies entirely above the voice, a device used later with good 
effect by Arthur Foote, Wintter Watts, and others. The song 
is seriously marred, however, by the purely technical display of 
its closing measures. Little Tmvn of Bethlehem, Op. 200 
(1901), shows an original and unstereotyped modulation, but 
its interludes consist of mere passage-work entirely out of keep- 
ing with the text, both of these songs showing an unfortunate 
reversion to the earlier, more theatrical style. Sayonara (M. L. 
Pool), Op. 201, No. 1 (1901), however, though of the same 
year, is much more original, has nothing of pyrotechnical dis- 
play, and shows both a stronger feeling for dissonance and a 
new melodic interest. 




Sayonara Bartlett 

? I 


Here I lie and sing no more, Sa-yo- 

a tempo 


na - ra, Sa-yo - na - ra, With a tomb - stone for my 


^7 tempo 

door, Sa-yo - na - ra, Sa-yo - na - ra. Here I 





Copynpht, 1W01, by G Schirmpr 

A Song of Spring (Lilian Pearl Turner), 1906, shows some- 
thing of contrapuntal feeling, rare in these songs. Her Voice 
to Me (John B. Bartlett), Op. 228 (1911), is probably his best 



song in its free use of strong dissonance, even including the 
augmented triad that, indeed, for the first time. 

(3 j?\ Andantino 

Her Voice to Me Bartlett 

to me, her voice to me Is 


full of sweet -est mel - o - dy, And thrill - ing as the 

That sum-merbreez-es bear a- long, When 

Copyright, 1911, by G. Scbirmrr 



Wie des Mondes Abbild (Heine), Op. 236 (1911), seems quite 
inadequate, except in certain portions. Here the augmented 
triad appears once more. In The Two Lovers (Shaemas 
O'Sheel), Op. 237 (1911), we again find the augmented triad. 
1911 seems to have been the year in which Bartlett discovered 
this new means of expression, and he was persistent in its use ! 
The admirable pianistic effects in the accompaniment of this 
song are quite justified by their appropriateness to the "rustling 
grass" and "murmurs of the sea" in the text. 

Allegro moderate 

The Two Lovers Bartlett 

As I went through the 

Copyright, 191i, by G. Schirmer 

The passage-work in Tell Me where is Fancy Bred (Shakes- 
peare), Op. 241, No. 2 (1912), is moderate in amount and not 
inappropriate ; the change of keys is good, as is also the second 
subject, and the postlude is unusually effective in its combina- 



tion of the two main themes. There is a Heart (Frederick W. 
Pangborn), No. 1 of the same opus, has a good opening section 
with broad phrasing but becomes mediocre further on. Easter 
Even (F. Whytehead), Op. 249 (1913), possesses much more 
of dignity than the earlier sacred songs ; and his last published 
song, Winds o March (G. Scott), Op. 272 (1920), is really an 
excellent song, with appropriate passage-work in the piano 
score and interesting harmonization. 

Winds o' March Bartlett 

Sting - ing winds, sing ing winds, Woo - ing, coo - ing 

ing, cry - ing, 

Fjck- Je, fick-le winds. o 1 



Copyright, 1920. by Carl Fischer 

If Bartlett could have but exercised more severe self-criticism, 
could have more relentlessly pruned away the too heavy luxuri- 
ance of his harmonic style, his very real ability would have come 
to fuller and finer expression. 

And now, before getting too far away from the subject, let 
us stop and consider for a moment what was the Germany of 
those years, 1850 to 1860 and thereabouts, to which our ambi- 
tious young American musicians were going for inspiration and 
training in their chosen field Willis, Parker, Pease, Paine, and 

Beethoven and Schubert had been dead some quarter of a 
century. Schumann, after the tragedy of his overclouding 
years, and Mendelssohn in the full meridian of his felicitous 
career had both passed on. Brahms had not yet come to the 
fullness of his powers. The splendor of Wagner's genius was 
beginning to illumine the heavens but had not yet quite pierced 
the fogs which lay upon the earth. There were numerous lesser 
musicians and composers, but what were they when compared 
with the giants gone or as yet unrecognized. It was the dawn- 
ing of the era of the executive artist rather than the creative 
genius ; of a Liszt rather than a Schumann past or a Brahms to 
come. It was the time of beginning a more or less standardized 
education of young musical talent, both for the concert plat- 


form and the private study, of musical education en masse. We 
have previously noted the founding of various music schools 
throughout Germany at Leipsic, Berlin and other centers, and 
the remarkable ascendancy among them all of the Leipsic Con- 
servatory. Here came Willis after studying with Schnyder von 
Wartensee at Frankfort on the Main. Here were J. C. D. 
Parker (1851-1854). and Buck (1858-1862), Parker studying 
under Hauptmann, Richter and Rietz, Buck under Hauptmann 
and Rietz, and apparently following the latter when he left 
Leipsic for Dresden in 1860. Buck remained with Rietz that 
year in Dresden and then changed once more for Paris where 
he spent the year 1861. It has been said of Hauptmann that 
his chief aim was to inculcate in his students the principle of 
"unity of idea and perfection of form," certainly a most worthy 
ideal and truly characteristic of Leipsic at that time. It is not 
clear just what years Pease spent in Germany, although we 
know he was there for some six years and that he was in Berlin 
at the Kullak Academy in 1859, where also Paine studied from 
1858 to 1861. They both worked with Wieprecht in instru- 
mentation ; Pease with Wuerst, Paine with Teschner, in compo- 
sition; Paine also studying organ with Haupt, who is said to 
have had the distinction of teaching over thirty-five American 

It would perhaps be interesting also to note the foreign 
activities of our American singers in these same years; for we 
seem to have developed a really excellent group of young concert 
and opera singers at that time who were a distinct credit to our 
country. Harrison Millard was busy with concert singing in 
Florence, where also Edward Sunmcr was singing in opera; 
Henry Squires, Mrs. Eastcott, and Isabella Hinkley also in 
opera in Italy, Mrs. Eastcott singing at Drury Lane as well ; 
Mme. Biscaccianti, American in spite of her name, in opera 
throughout Europe and even in South America; Elisc Hcnslcr, 

1870-1880 101 

soprano, and Adelaide Phillipps, contralto, both born abroad, 
but American from childhood, admirable and distinguished 
singers, the former in opera, the latter in concert and oratorio. 
Apparently even in these earlier years of our musical develop- 
ment we were ambitious for foreign laurels and fairly successful 
in obtaining them ! 

1870-1880 (Continued) 

W. K. Bassford, G. W. Marston, Oscar Weil, Stephen Emery, 
Samuel P. Warren, George E. Whiting, George L. Osgood, 

C. Henshaw Dana, W. W. Gilchrist, Silas G. Pratt, 

W. J. McCoy, Louis C. Elson, N. H. Allen, Frederick Grant 

Gleason, Jules Jordan, J. C. Baptlett, F. Q. Dulcken, 

Clara K. Rogers, H/W. Nicholl 

WE have said that with Buck and Bartlett the flood-gates 
of American song were opened wide. No longer does 
some pianist or teacher in a moment of relaxation from his more 
serious labors toss off a mere song or so. Now they come rather 
in dozens, in fifties, in hundreds, throughout the course of one's 
working life. To be sure there is as yet in America no Robert 
Franz, no preeminent writer of songs alone. But even with us 
song itself has finally come to be recognized as an important 
element in one's creative output and seriously to be reckoned 

Among these more or less prolific song-writers, particularly 
those contemporary with Buck, and thus grouped with him, we 
find W. K. Bassford (1839-1902), G. W. Marston (18^0- 
1901), Oscar Weil (1840-1921), Stephen Emery (1841-1891), 
Samuel P. Warren (1841-1915), and George E. Whitinf 
(1842-1923) ; with Bartlett, George L. Osgood (1844-1922), 
C. Henshaw Dana (1846-1883), W. W. Gilchrist and Silas G 
Pratt (1846-1916); and a little later, W. J. McCoy (1848 


1870-1880 (Continued) 103 

1926), Louis C. Elson (1848-1920), N. H. Allen (1848-1925), 
Frederick Grant Gleason (1848-1903), Jules Jordan (1850- 
1927), and J. C. Bartlett (1850-1929). Among those com- 
ing from England we find F. Q. Dulcken (1837-1902), Clara 
Kathleen Rogers (1844-), and H. W. Nicholl (1848-1922). 

The songs of W. K. Bassford and G. W. Marston seem quite 
undistinguished. The former's early song, Home they brought 
her Warrior Dead, Op. 35 (1866) is probably his best a 
simple, genuine, effective song. Oscar Weil is best known for 
his two excellent songs : In Autumn and Spring Song, Op. 10, 
Nos. 1 and 2. 

Stephen Emery made interesting use of imitation between 
the voice and piano in Good Night, Op. 19 (1868), and in 
Lullaby, Op. 28, No. 1 (1872). His harmony, however, is 
stereotyped and unoriginal. 

The songs of Samuel P. Warren are among the most musi- 
cianly of his time. They show strong Schumann influence, and 
the craftsmanship is always excellent. Like Brahms, he is fond 
of allowing voice and piano parts to move in thirds and sixths. 
The Sea Hath Its Pearls (1865) is of rich texture, with much 
use of ninth harmonies and sequence. In the two songs from 
Tennyson (1866), Miller's Daughter and Love That Hath Us 
in the Net, the evidence of Warren's admiration for Schumann's 
style is very marked, resulting, in the case of the second song, 
in a very attractive and unusual piece of work, which, taken as 
pure music, still appeals to us of today, though there is no hint 
of any actual interpretation of the mood of the text. Probably 
any words could be substituted for those used, with no notice- 
able loss of unity. Sea Foam (1868) is better in this respect, 
as there persists throughout the song an appropriate surging 
figure in the accompaniment, for its time a highly distinctive 
feature. (See Ex. 42 and 43.) 



(42) Andante espressivo 

Love that Hath Us in the Net Warren 


" *r p 

Love that hath us in 

the net 

In Adrian's Apostrophe (1871) we again glimpse Schumann. 
In / Love My Love (1877), first of Three Songs, text by 
Charles Mackay, we find the first use of mediant modulation in 
Warren's songs. Waiting (J. Burroughs), 1900, is elaborate, 
dramatic; Faithful (Arthur Grissom), clean cut and skilfully 

George L. Osgood makes use of imitation between voice and 
piano in Flower May Hide Its Lovely Face (1874), and of se- 
quence in She Wears a Rose in Her Hair (1874) and in the waltz 
song, Brown Eyes Has That Little Maiden (1875). In May 
My Dream Came True (Nathan Haskell Dole), 1898, shows use 
of mediant modulation. The Night Has a Thousand Eyes 
(1900) is dignified and sincere, and April, Laugh Thy Girlish 
Laughter (William Watson), 1904, is buoyant and interesting, 
with an effective bit of coloratura at its close. 


1870-1880 (Continued) 105 

Sea Foam Warren 

Sing now up -on the 

si - lent shore, The sad - dest of thy songs, oh_ Seal And 

The songs of Henshaw Dana show the ear-marks of roman- 
ticism in the use of mediant modulations and sequence ; as in It 
Was a Knight of Aragon (T. B. Aldrich) and Beside the Sum- 
mer Sea (William Winter), both of 1878. 

Of W. W. Gilchrist's Song of Doubt and a Song of Love 
(J. G. Holland), 1884, the former is elaborate a veritable 
scena full of dramatic color, with a varied and interesting 
piano score; the latter is less successful. Bugle Song (Tenny- 
son), 1884, makes clever use of horn intervals; How Many 
Thoughts (1885) shows an excellent recitative-like introduc- 
tion; Heart's Delight (1886), a climax of fine breadth and 
dramatic value, virile and strong. Nature's Lullaby (1893) 



reminds one of Warren in its Schumannesque texture ; Joys of 
Spring (1896) is a brilliant concert song, effective, though not 


Nature's Lullaby Gilchrist 
un poco piu MOHSO, ma non troppo - 


Beau - - ty does not die, 

then be still, 




moKso, ma non frnppo 


mar cat o 

. the sun goes by, 

. will soothe thy ill, 

Then the moon in glo - ry 

All thy griev-in yields to 

sheds its mcl - low light, 
sooth ing so di - vine, 


Copyright, IH93, by W W.Oilthrtt 

1870-1880 (Continued) 107 

strikingly original, and less good of its type than Chadwick's 
Danza. Sweet Is True Love (Tennyson), 1902, is interesting, 
but, like many of Gilchrist's songs, is of instrumental rather than 
vocal character. Of Gilchrist's numerous sacred songs the best 
is Oh, Lord, Thou Hast Searched Me Out (1906) a very mu- 
sicianly and effective setting of Psalm 139. If one admit the 
legitimacy of dramatic effects in sacred music, this is one of the 
very best of American sacred songs. 

Silas Gamaliel Pratt was evidently somewhat of the type of 
"Father" Heinrich in that his ideas were often too big for his 
utterance. He wrote symphonies and operas, and what is more, 
they were produced an orchestral composition of his being 
given at a regular symphony concert in Berlin. But no one 
who studies his songs can fail to understand why these larger 
works were not more successful. O Holy Night (I heard the 
trailing garments of the night), Longfellow (1883), is typical. 
It is partly recitative, dramatically treated a finely laid out 
song. It is richly harmonized, and the declamatory portions 
alternate with sustained cavatina in attractive fashion. But 
here, too, the technique is far from adequate to the conception. 
In general, Pratt's songs show lack of discipline, finesse; they 
are restless, at times awkward. There is unquestioned feeling 
for color, however, reminding one somewhat of Pease. Was 
there something about their common teacher, Wuerst, at Leipsic, 
that gave them both this same characteristic? Or was it inborn? 

There is much of refined feeling for harmonic color in W. J. 
McCoy's There Are So Many Ways to Love, Op. 47, No. 1 
(Arthur Grissom), 1900; attractive melodic line and tenuous 
accompaniment in The Only Voice, Op. 51, No. 1 (Oscar Weil), 
1905; while In the Shadow of Your Eyes (Arthur Marvel), 
1917, shows attractive texture in its piano score. 

In Daffodils (1887) Jules Jordan makes curious and inter- 
esting use of a trumpet motif, puzzling until the line is reached. 



"With golden trumpets in their hands." This anticipatory 
effect is both original and happy. 

Stay By and Sing (1888) shows lyric grace, and Down By 
the Brook in May Time (1891) attractive coloratura phrases. 
In Triumphant Love (Kipling), 1892, Jordan attempted the 
grandiose, and not without a certain dignity and virility, quite 



Daffodils Jordan 




i ~ 

With gold- entrum-pcts in their 

anfii) j. n rz^z&t 


On pli - ant stems they light - ly 

In c)iocr- ful, daunt-less, gor-geous 

1870-1880 (Continued) 


- J 


bands Their trumpets to the breeze they fling_ And 





Copyright, 1887, by G: Schirmer 

in keeping with the text. There is something of very real in- 
tensity and passion in this song. In a somewhat similar vein is 
the Song of the Norsemen (Walter Burgess Smith), 1897. Of 
his sacred songs, Pie Jesu (1900) and Ave Maria (1919) are 
simple and devotional in spirit. 

J. C. Bartlett's well-known A Dream (Charles B. Cory), 
1895, is fairly typical of his work. His songs, characterized by 
a rich harmonic sense, become cloying through lack of discipline 
and proper restraint. 

Ferdinand Qucntin Dulcken was a thoroughly trained mu- 
sician, born in England and coming to America at the age of 
thirty-nine, after studying with Mendelssohn, Gade, Moscheles, 
and Hauptmann at Leipsic, and Hiller at Cologne. He had 
taught at Warsaw and had spent four years in Paris. He was 
a prolific writer, his song Recollections (Romanza), 1885, being 
his Op. 215. This song, like all the others, is elaborate, richly 
scored, and abounds in long instrumental portions. As a har- 
monist Dulcken is conservative, the occasional chromaticism of 
his melodies never disturbing the normal diatonic harmonies 
underneath. There is much enharmonic modulation, and his 
songs derive their chief interest from the piano score. 

Of all the composers under consideration at this time there 
was no one who so unerringly caught the mood of the text as 



Clara Kathleen Rogers. There is a spontaneity about her songs 
whose equal is far to seek in the songs of her day, and her skill 
in interpreting the various moods seems always equal to her 
needs. Naturally, her technique developed with continued writ- 
ing, and her last songs are her best. Yet even the early She 
Never Told Her Love (Shakespeare) and the Clover Blossoms 
(Oscar Leighton), both 1882, are surprisingly rich in harmonic 
color and original in treatment ; while the whimsical Confession, 
Op. 20, No. 2 (1884), is a delicious bit of interpretative humor. 
The artistic climax of her work, however, comes in her last songs, 
Sudden Light, Op. 33, No. 1 (Rossetti), 1900 and Overhead the 

Sudden Light Rogers 

Copyright, 1900 , by Arthur P. Schmidt. 

Tree Tops Meet, Op. 36 (Browning), 1903. These are both 
choice songs of rare flavor, and show a high grade of musician- 

1870-1880 (Continued) 111 

The songs of Horace Wadham Nicholl, born in England 
1848, coming to America 1871, are restless in every sense, har- 
monically, melodically, rhythmically; and this lack of repose is 
their chief defect. Love On (1876) is interesting for its choral- 
like melody in its middle section. / Ask Not (1876) passes 
through seven different tonalities in the course of six measures ! 
Mein Lieb und Ich (1889), while skilful in its workmanship, 
shows this same energetic, impetuous, restive character. 

For the most part all these writers of songs were also prac- 
tical musicians: Dudley Buck, organist and writer of church 
music the latter field also occupied with distinction by W. W. 
Gilchrist; George L. Osgood, Clara K. Rogers, and Jules 
Jordan, singers ; S. P. Warren, organist. It would be an inter- 
esting study to attempt to determine how far these activities are 
reflected in their songs. 



Arthur Foote, George W. Chadwick, Edward MacDowell, 

James H. Rogers, Ethelbert Nevin, William Arms Fisher, 

Ernest R. Kroeger, Henry H olden Huss, Horatio Parker, 

Sidney Homer, Harvey Worthington Loomis, 

Mrs. H.H.A. Beach, Henry F. Gilbert 

IF we owe to Buck and Bartlett and their contemporaries the 
establishment upon a permanent basis of the art-song in 
America, it is to two men of the succeeding decade that we owe 
its marked development along artistic lines. We recall the 
suggestions of appropriate and effective writing in some of 
Francis Hopkinson's songs, the memorable opening phrase of 
Benjamin Carr's Ave Maria, the very real lyric charm in por- 
tions of J. C. D. Parker's Come into the Garden, Maud, the 
sumptuous tonal effects of Alfred Pease and Homer Bartlett, 
the rhythmic vigor of Dudley Buck, and we realize that somehow 
through the years, the thin, wavering line of American song has 
gained in strength and firmness until now at the hands of Arthur 
Foote and George W. Chadwick it may worthily weave itself 
into the varied pattern of contemporary music. It is to the per- 
sonality and musicianship of these two men that we owe the 
giving to our native song a status comparable with that of other 
lands and times. True, inspiration may sometimes seem to lag 
in the songs of both these men, but crude they never are nor in- 
sincere. Admirable alike in spirit and workmanship, these songs 
have served as a firm foundation on which to build; and how- 


1880-1900 113 

ever-much our present-day song or that of the future may differ 
from these in type and style, we shall always look back to them 
as the beginning of real artistry in American song. And it is 
an interesting fact that with these men we enter upon our own 
contemporary stage ; for happily they are both still with us and 
still writing songs, the present link that binds us to that past 
neither too remote in time nor, let us hope, in interest which 
we have been considering in these pages. 

We may consider, then, that the Present of American song 
begins with Arthur Foote (1853-) and George W. Chadwick 
(1854-). Is it not truly a remarkable thing that today, in 
1930, it is still possible for us to treat as contemporary, writers 
who were also contemporary with the essential beginnings of our 
song contradictory as that may sound ? Yet when we consider 
that the whole world was as recently as 1928 celebrating the 
centenary of the death of that great originator of song as we 
know it today, Franz Schubert, we need not be surprised that our 
own recognized efforts along this line fall within the last half- 
century. In a certain sense, perhaps, we may say that our Past 
is our Present that both stages are comprehended in the lives 
of these two men. For not only is it true that American art- 
song (if we place the emphasis upon art) takes its real begin- 
ning with them, but it is no less true that they have kept pace 
with it even up to the very present. To Foote and Chadwick, 
therefore, let us never fail to do grateful homage for their con- 
stantly enlarging endeavor in this field. 

In Foote's early songs, such as I'm Wearing Awa* to the 
Land o' the Leal (Lady Nairn), 1887, In Picardie (Graham 
R. Tomson), 1896, and A Ditty (Sir Philip Sidney), 1892, we 
find the same singleness of purpose, the same serious, capable 
workmanship that we see in his songs of today. A Ditty catches 
the very mood of its text there is the same light, delicate touch ; 
while in In Picardie the deliberate movement, the expressive 



(4?) Allegretto grazioso 

A Ditty Footc 


My true - love hath my heart, and I have 


h 1 1 i i 


his, By just ex-change one to the oth- er given: 

Copyright, 1892, by Arthur P. Schmidt. 

intervals, are equally potent in interpreting the meditative mood 
of the verses. And so it is with his later songs ; A Twilight Fear 
(C. G. Blanden), 1918, is simplicity itself. I commend it to 
our young writers as a model of expressive brevity, of artistic 
restraint. Of like simplicity is The Red Rose Whispers of 
Passion (John Boyle O'Reilly), 1919. We may well note the 
unaffected eloquence of the phrase "And the white rose is a 
dove." Always sensitive to harmonic color, although at times 
in a peculiarly dispassionate way, in which he somewhat re- 
sembles MacDowell, Foote has continually grown with the years. 
His later songs show much more individuality and imaginative 
treatment than those of earlier date, as witness the constantly 
shifting color of Tranquillity (Mary van Orden), 1915, the strik- 
ingly Brahmsian middle section of Lilac Time (Alfred Noyes), 



1917, the lyric fluency of How Many Times Do I Love Thee, 
Dear (Thomas Lovell Beddoes), 1919, and the atmospheric final 
cadences of both A Twilight Fear and Ships That Pass in the 
Night (Longfellow), 1921; 

Ships that pass in the Night Foote 


So on the o-cean of life, we pass \ve 


and speak one an - oth - or, 

n/ morendo 

On - Iv a look and a voice, then dark-ness a - 


molto di 

'ppp coll a, race morcndo 

cord a al Fine 



in and a si - lence. 

Copyright, I'.i21,l>ythft Arthur? Schmidt Co 

and I doubt if anything more genuine in a musical way came 
out of the war than Foote's simple, sincere, heartfelt set of Three 
Songs, Op. 79 In Flanders' Fields (Lieut.-Col. John McCrae), 
The Soldier (Rupert Brooke) , Oh, Red is the English Rose (Dr. 
Charles Alexander Richmond) . 

With a richer palette than Foote's, a more decorative use 
of contrapuntal devices in his piano score, and more sUavity 
of style, but certainly with no more unerring instinct for that 
which is artistically appropriate, Chadwick's songs filled a large 
place in our national song consciousness for many decades. His 
early setting of Heine's much set verses Du bist wie eine 
Blume, 1883, is fluent and graceful, not without very real 
charm, Allah (Longfellow), 1887, is characterized by a simple 
dignity of utterance, and The Danza (Arlo Bates), 1885, has 
distinct refinement, with interesting contrapuntal variety in the 
midst of its gay dance rhythms. A Ballad of Trees and the 
Master, 1899, is serious and deeply felt, even though it seems 
scarcely to do justice to the infinite pathos of Sidney Lanier's 
verses. The much-sung Bedouin Love Song (Bayard Taylor), 
1890, has characteristic vigor and verve, and its long-drawn-out 
final climax is developed with true dramatic instinct. From 
Told in the Gate (1897), a collection of eleven songs to poems 
by Arlo Bates, Sweetheart, Thy Lips Are Touched with Flame 



and Oh, Let Night Speak of Me are particularly successful, the 
former through the appropriate intensity of its expression, 
the latter by reason of its sincerity and depth of feeling. 

Sweetheart, thy lips are touched with flame Chadwick 
Molto appassionato 



Sweet - heart, 

thy lips are touchedwith flame; 

? .1 



heart, thy glow - ing ar - dor tame; Sweet- 



' I j> 



thy love how can I blame, When 

Copyriiht. 1897. by Arthur P. Schmidt. 

< 50 '' Molto moderato 

Oh, let night speak of me Chadwick 

Oh, let night speak of me, 



i ) h K K K h = 

fr * * J ) J ) J 1 d J 

^ -^ for day Knows not howbreats with woe my heart;. 

Day knows not how I mourn-ful stray, Weep -ing for 


J f 




1 1- 


) dear thou 










^ - 









Copyright, 1897, by Arthur P. Schmidt. 

In When I Am Dead (Christina Rossetti), 1910, our composer 
gives expression to a pathos unusual in his songs ; while Tempo 
di Bolero in The Daughter of Mendoza (M. B. Lamar), 1914, 
is most ingratiating. Chadwick has done little song-writing of 
late years, the most recent things to come to my notice being the 


rollicking set of Three Nautical Songs: The Admirals (R. 
D. Ware), Drake's Drum (Henry Newbolt), and Pirate Song 
(Conan Doyle) ,1920. 

Following upon Foote's and Chadwick's earlier works, come 
songs by James H. Rogers (1857-), Edward MacDowell 
(1861-1908), Ethelbert Nevin (1862-1901), William Arms 
Fisher (1861-), Ernest R. Kroeger (1862-), Henry Holden 
Huss (1862-), Horatio Parker (1863-1920), Sidney Homer 
(1864-), Harvey Worthington Loomis (1865-), Mrs. H. H. A. 
Beach (1867-), Henry F. Gilbert (1868-1928) and others, for- 
tunately most of them still actively writing. 

James H. Rogers' most important songs come almost within 
the last decade, including the two cycles Five Quatrains from 
Omar Khayyam and In Memoriam, and such admirable songs as 
The Time for Making Songs Has Come (Hermann Hagedorn) 
and The Last Song (Hartley Alexander) . 

Of the songs of Edward MacDowell it is scarcely necessary 
at this time to speak. Henry T. Finck to the contrary notwith- 
standing (though one hesitates to disagree with so distinguished 
an authority on songs and song-writers), I cannot feel that Mac- 
Dowell's songs, taken as a whole, are particularly distinctive. 
His medium was primarily the piano. Are the Four Songs 9 
Op. 56, to be compared for one moment with the Woodland 
Sketches, Op. 51, or the Sea Pieces, Op. 55? Is there among 
all his songs a melody as fragrant as that of the Wild Rose? 

If we take his songs seriatim, it is curious to see in what 
respects his technical style changed between the Five Songs, 
Op. 11 and 12, and Four Songs, Op. 56, from a full, opulent 
piano score to the barest chords, followed in Op. 58 and 60 by a 
partial return to the earlier manner. Apparently MacDowell 
felt the very great danger ever present in song writing of 

1880-1900 121 

submerging the voice in a heavy sea of externality, and very 
soon began cutting his piano score down to the merest back- 
ground for the vocal line. One can not help the feeling, how- 
ever, that he was altogether too rigorous in this process. If 
rather he had kept somewhat more to the technique of his earlier 
songs, giving them the added richness and power of his maturing 
ability, as he very patently began to do in the Three Songs, 
Op. 60, his songs as a whole would have gained immeasurably. 
As it is, the earlier songs have a certain attractiveness that many 
of the later ones lack. It is unfortunate, too, that MacDowell 
treated the voice part with such persistent metrical regularity. 
This habit grew upon him, it is true, but it was present even in 
his earlier songs. If only he could have treated the vocal line 
with greater freedom, it would have added much of spontaneity, 
of fluency, and dramatic value to his songs. This unvaried met- 
rical persistence in the voice part, coupled with complete lack of 
contrasting melodies, of counter rhythms in piano score, often 
places the undeniable artistry of MacDowell under too heavy a 
handicap in his songs. 

The early songs, Mem Liebchen, Op. 11, No. 1, and Nacht- 
lied, Op. 12, No. 1, are fairly Straussian in the freedom of the 
counter melodies in the piano score, in the beauty of the modula- 
tions. Oben wo die Sterne gliihen, Op. 11, No. 3 (Heine), is 
quite unusual among MacDowell's songs for the contrast be- 
tween the rhythms of voice and piano. There is a certain 
breadth, dignity even solemnity of movement in this song 
that is very satisfying. From an Old Garden, Six Songs 
(Margaret Deland), Op. 26 (1887), abounds in deft poetic 
touches, as at the words "a bit of heaven" in The Myrtle and 
"he flew away" in The Bluebell, while the characterization of the 
Sturdy Clover is altogether delightful. Idyll, Op. 33, No. 3 
(Goethe), is rendered distinctive by the dainty staccato accom- 
paniment of the piano against a sustained long-breathed canti- 



lena of the voice, with the welcome alternation of j and | rhythm. 
In Six Songs, Op. 40 (W. H. Gardner), 1890, we catch certain 
glimpses of the earlier freedom of style. In the first song, 
Sweet Blue-Eyed Maid, the accompaniment is quite individual- 
ized, even the regularity of the voice part broken at times; in 
Sweetheart, Tell Me there is a most charming obbligato melody 
in the accompaniment ; Thy Beaming Eyes, however, shows but 
two measures in which the accompaniment does not follow the 
voice, note for note ; For Sweet Love's Sake, excellent as it is as 
music, might take to itself any words whatsoever, or no words 
at all, and remain equally attractive. Oh, Lovely Rose and / 
Ask but This are interesting bits of lyricism, the latter with an 
accompaniment buoyant enough in itself, but the vocal line 
again absolutely uninterrupted. In Eight Songs, Op. 47, we 
find two of MacDowell's best known songs, the inimitable Mid- 
summer Lullaby, (after Goethe), where what is a defect in most 
songs becomes a real advantage, and the uninterrupted, persist- 
ent movement of his shimmering harmonies produces just the 
right dreamy effect, an absolutely perfect fusion of the idea and 
its expression, and The Sea (Howells), which, while very attrac- 
tive in its rich harmonic coloring, quite fails to express in its vocal 
line the tragic drama of the text. Long Ago (the first of Four 
Songs, Op. 56), 1898, has a rich, expressive melodic line, but un- 


Midsummer Lullaby MacDowell 


Sil - ver clouds arc light - ly sail - ing 





J ; J 





TJirough the d row - sy, trem-bhng air, 

And the gold - en 



slightly retard 

sum-mer sun- shine Casts a glo - ry ev 


Permission by As so Music Inc., N. Y. C. 

questionably the most successful song in this group is the buoyant 
and lilting A Maid Sings Light and a Maid Sings Low, surely 
one of MacDowell's best songs. Here is no suggestion of dull 
perf unctoriness, but rather the utmost buoyancy and lightness of 
touch. Beginning with Three Songs, Op. 58 (1899), and con- 
tinuing through Three Songs, Op. 60 (1902), there is a decided 
growth in imaginative treatment, in fluency of expression. Sun- 
rise, from Op. 58, contains some of MacDowell's best lines ; while 
Merry Maiden Spring is a fit companion to A Maid Sings Light 
and a Maid sings Law. In the last group of MacDowell's pub- 
lished songs, Three Songs, Op. 60, we find what seems to be the 
most consistently developed group in all his songs. The quaintly 
archaic character of Tyrant Love is most delightfully reflected in 



the music and with unwonted rhythmic freedom. The passage 
beginning "Yet though the tears be bitter-sweet" from Fair 


Fair Springtide MacDowell 

Yet though the tears- be bit - ter - sweet, They 

Copyright, 1902, by Arthur P. Schmidt 

and similarly effective parts of To a Golden Rod point clearly 
to his earlier freer style, and seem to imply that MacDowelPs 
best songs were never written. Indeed, we have every reason 
to believe that if he had lived, his later songs would have shown 
an ever-increasing freedom of treatment, an ever-growing beauty 
of expression. 

Probably no review of American song during these decades 
could be considered in any sense complete that left out of 



account the songs of Ethelbert Nevin, which enjoyed such 
tremendous vogue in their time. Nor was this entirely a mis- 
taken enthusiasm ; for while Nevin possessed no profundity of mu- 
sical thought, he did have to a marked degree a feeling for fluent 
melody, a limited but expressive (though unfortunately often 
oversentimentalized) harmonic sense, and a certain buoyancy of 
style not at all to be despised. The almost maudlin Oh! that 
we two were Maying (Kingsley) is at once, probably, his most 
familiar and his worst song, and yet even here his handling of 
"O'er river, and mead, and town," is distinctly not unimpressive. 
William Arms Fisher delights in a rich, sonorous harmoni- 
zation which he utilizes with fine effect in The Singer's Wish 
(Sara Teasdale), 1921. Very attractive is the pictorial touch 


Oh that we two were Maying Nevin 


J / Z7 

In our nest in the church - yard sod, With our 



limbs at rest on the qui - et earth's breast, And our 

Copyright, 1902, by G. Schirmer, Jr. 

at the words "falling star." I Wait for Thee (Arthur T. Frog- 
gatt), first issued in 1893 and reissued in revised form in 1920, 
is characterized by the same richness of harmonic texture, while 
As Once in May (von Gilm) is a sterling song worthy to be 
ranked with the best settings of this well-known text. Special 
mention must also be made of Fisher's unusually skilful arrange- 
ment of numerous Irish songs and Negro Spirituals. 

Ernest R. Kroeger has written many well-known songs, as 
have Henry Holden Huss and Sidney Homer. Kroeger's suave 
and lovely Bend Low, O Dusky Night, 1911, remains unmatched 
among his songs, we might almost say among all contemporary 
songs, in its absolute simplicity and velvet-like smoothness of 
texture. His Love's Power (Elizabeth K. Reynolds), 1911, is 



(54) jriu mosso 

The Singer's wish Fisher 

If I could make a sin-gle song As love-ly 

piii rnosso . ^.^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

As hush'd and brief as a 




On a win-lcr night, 

Copyright, 1921, by Oltor Ditson Compa-v 

an ingenious and finely wrought example of interdependence of 
voice and piano, while Above the Stars (text by the composer), 
1916, is perhaps the most deeply felt and atmospheric of his songs. 
We wish that Henry Holden Huss could be induced to write 
more songs of the type of his It Was a Lover and His Lass, 
1907. To us it is the best song he has written. In it he has 
caught exactly the right quaint and archaic style, and a very 
attractive style it is. There is just enough harmonic variety, 
neither too mucli nor too little, and the unexpected turn that he 
gives the winsome melody of his opening bars when it recurs 
between the verses, is exceedingly whimsical and attractive. 

Lento e rubato 


Love's Power Kroeger 




He whom thine eyes have 


"I'lllj 1 f f MJ 1 f 

cantajtdo ed ettpretmtvo 



Doth hum-bly crave thy pi - ty and com 




r IT f 

pas- sion: Free would his heart re - main 

poc o sfretto 

mp poco rit 


r r 

(Not that poor slave) 

Didst thou not cast Loveb 


Copyright, 1S11, by Tho H.W. Gray Co. 



His setting of the Burns poem While Larks With Little Wing, 
1910, would be equally effective and from a harmonic standpoint 
even more so, were it not that unfortunately it lacks the unity 
and directness of the other. Perhaps the most imaginative song 
that Huss has written is Before Sunrise (R. W. Gilder), 1907. 

It \vas a lover and his lass Huss 

\&t ;; 

rr : 


i n f 1 

TO '"' J 

/ Oil 

JK_~ trft i 

was a 1 


ov - cr 

and his lass, With a 

ffi ir 'J 

I f 


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t * 

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y x ff 1I J J | 


r 1 

jjoc/t. occel 


hey, arid a ho, and a hey non - i - no f That 

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p d T in ^ 

p- ' 7 

o'er the green com - 


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eld did P ass i In tlic 

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^ir*-* 9- 

*frfi L \ P 

P ^ 

/ff C * =JTT 



bpring-tirru', the on - ly pret - (y ring- time, 





Copyright, 1907, by G. Schirmer 

Here we find the harmonic scheme richer and more expressive, the 
rhythm more flexible than in many of his songs. 

With all his song writing, it is doubtful if Sidney Homer has 
ever written anything more telling than his early Sing Me a 

Allegro Spirited f 

Sing me a song of a lad that is gone Homer 



Sing me a song of a 

~T ji T~ 
lad that is go 



, i^T J i 

\. j ; 



-"-f 7 -I : 


-^ 1 2 


Say, could that lad be I? 

Mcr - ry of soul he__ 



/ rit. ,. , . a trm/io 

- ver the sea to Skye 

Copyright, 1904, by G. Schirmef 

Song of a Lad that is Gone (R. L. Stevenson), 1904, a song 
redolent of the sea and the sky, and whose rollicking style is 
delightfully characteristic. 

Horatio W. Parker's songs may sometimes lack spontaneity, 
but are always written with great skill and much harmonic 
richness. Perhaps no American song-writer of his time sur- 
passes him in freedom and variety of the piano score. It is 
always entirely independent of the voice, and abounds in free 
obbligato melodies of great effectiveness. His early song, Pack 
Clouds Away (Thomas Heywood), 1891, is not only rich in 
color, but fluent in its movement a condition not always pres- 
ent in these songs. / Know a Little Rose, Op. 34, No. 1 (1893), 
is of unusually simple, harmonic construction, but of very real 
lyric charm. Of his Four Songs, Op. 59 (1904), Serenade 
(Nathan Haskell Dole) is attractive in its thin, open texture, 
while Good Bye (Christina Rossetti) is of a sombre color, un- 
usual with Parker. Crepuscule, Op. 64 (J. DeBeaufort), 
1912, is an elaborate and richly scored aria. In a Garden 
(Brian Hooker), from the opera Fairyland (1915), is a really 
distinctive song, almost austere in its harmonization, but as 
graceful and tenuous in its texture as the earlier songs had been 
rich and full. 




In a Garden Parker 


In a gar- den glad and green Blooms a 


un-known, un- seen, 


jl! y J 

bo-somed like a flame, Ho-ly like a ho - ly name, 

Copyright, 191- r > f by G. Schirmer 

Perhaps the best known and deservedly so of Parker's songs 
is The Lark Now Leaves His Watery Nest, from Six Old Eng- 
lish Songs, Op. 47 (1899). Its thoroughly objective character 
is peculiarly congenial to Parker's style, and the result is a song 
quite perfect of its type. 



The delicacy and grace that Harvey Worthington Loomis 
knows so well how to impart to his writing, so particularly ap- 
propriate to the setting of child's verse, is well exemplified in 
A Little Dutch Garden (Hattie Whitney), 1910. We see the 
more serious side of his musical personality in the brief but 
poignant Epitaph upon a Virgin (Robert Herrick), 1902; 
while the strong individuality of Henry F. Gilbert finds expres- 
sion in songs like The Croon of the Dew (George Turner 
Phelps), 1914, and Bring from the craggy haunts of birch and 
pine (John Todhunter), from Celtic Studies, 1909. 

Mrs. H. H. A. Beach has never given us finer work than in 
her setting of Robert Browning's Ah, Love, but a Day, a truly 
distinctive song in its sincerity and depth of feeling, the close 
being particularly effective in its clever psychological develop- 
ment, its wistfulness and pathos. 

Ah, Love, but a day! Beach 




r r i i 



in_ my eyes!_ 




ed agitato 

fear sur- prise? Shall I find aught new In the 

r/r.rc ^/ agitato 




old and dear, In the good and true,. 

With the chang 


Look in my 







rit c xemprc dim 


Wilt thou change too?. 


Copyright, 1900, by Arthur P. Schmidt. 

Equally attractive in altogether different manner is its com- 
panion piece, The Year's at the Spring, issued in the same year, 
1904. In 1924 Mrs. Beach published two songs with violin and 
'cello, The Mirage (Bertha Ochsner) and Stella Viatorts (Jessie 
H. Nettleton), and in 1928, Rendezvous (Leonora Speyer) also 
with violin, all written with her accustomed skill. The last 
named song is particularly distinguished for its freshness and 

Among others who during this period have helped either 



Allegro-di molto 

The Year's at the Spring Beach 

The year* at the spring, 

Morn - ingfc at sev - en; The 

aide's dew - pearled j 

Copyright, 1900, by Arthur P. Schmidt. 

qualitatively or quantitatively happily oftentimes both to es- 
tablish American song as it stands today are the following well- 
known writers. Obviously, however, it is impossible either to 
make such a list complete or to go into any detail ; the most that 

1880-1900 139 

can be done is to note here and there a certain few representative 
songs, generally of fairly recent date: 

A. M. FOERSTER, 1854-1927 

A Wreath of Songs, Op. 70, 1910 

WILSON G. SMITH, 1855-1929 


The Cry of Rachel (Lizette Woodworth Reese), 1905 
Two Songs : The Moth, We Two (Patience Worth), 1920 

J. H. BREWER, 1856 

Eldorado (Poe) 
Israfel (Poe), 1901 

FRANK LYNES, 1858-1913 


Waldesrauschen (Paul Remer), 1910 

B. O. KLEIN, 1858-1911 

Four Songs, Op. 89, 1907 


GERRIT SMITH, 1859-1912 

Cycle Thistledown (Cora Fabbri), 1907 

HOMER NORRIS, 1860-1920 
Four Songs, 1900 


Three Songs (Christina Rossetti), Op. 18, 1904 


In the Night (Elizabeth E. Moore), 1923 



My True Love Lies Asleep (Lizette Woodworth Reese), 1919 


W. H. NEIDLINGER, 1863-1924 


Six Songs, Op. 14, 1893 



The Sailor's Wife (Mary S. Cutting), 1917 


Three Songs, Op. 37, 1922 


O Wild West Wind (Shelley), 1922 
Tell Me, Thou Wanderer (Shelley), 1923 

Album of Ten Songs 


Departure (Hermann Hagedorn), 1925 
The Sea Lands (Orrick Johns), 1925 

Louis VICTOR SAAR, 1868 

Four Seasons (John Murray Gibbon), 1927 (A Canadian Song 

W. V. HARRIS, 1869 

( Walter de la Mare )> 1921 


Ernest Block, Charles M. Loeffler, George F. Boyle, 

Marion Bauer, Frederick Jacobi, Emerson Whithorne, 

Arthur Shepherd, Carl Engel, John Beach, Oscar G. Sonneck, 

Alexander Steinert, Jr., Frederic Ayres, Arthur Farwell, 

Howard Brockway, Alexander Rihm, Henry Hadley, 

David Stanley Smith, Richard Hageman, Charles Fonteyn 

Manney, John Powell, Carl Deis, Edward Ballantine, 

George Harris 

AS the world at large has its Stravinsky, its Schonberg, its 
Milhaud, so we in American song have our own modernist 
group, not so large perhaps as one might expect, but vigorous 
and flourishing. 

There may well be good and sufficient reasons for the fact 
that our most pronounced modernists are not so much our own 
native-born Americans as those who have come to us from other 
lands. Certain it is that no one now resident in America seems 
to have done more convincing work along these ultramodern lines 
than the Swiss-born Ernest Bloch (1880-). His work is always 
characterized by the utmost skill in craftsmanship, and while 
no one could ever accuse him of any reticence in individual self- 
expression, he is never guilty of incoherence or formlessness. 
Rather there is a fine sense of logic, of unity and symmetry in 
all that he does ; a firmness of substance that can come only from 
keen thinking. And in a feeling for what is sombre, stern, 
tragic, in musical expression he is probably unsurpassed today. 




As to his songs, no one can study his earlier Poemcs d 9 
Automne (Beatrix Rodes), 1918, without being moved by their 
pathos, and feeling a deep admiration for the personality able 
to evoke such intensely human moods as these. This admiration 
for Bloch as a transcriber of the deeper human emotions is 
only strengthened by his powerful Psalms 114 an d 137* and that 
great dramatic monologue, Psalm 2, all of 1919, where he not 
only searches the soul's deepest depths, but in the final climax 
rises to superb heights of spiritual ecstasy. It is powerful 
writing that of a hand sure of its own strength. 

Charles M. Loeffler (1861-), while writing with the same 
genuineness and, too, with a full rich texture of his own, ap- 
parently avoids the deeply tragic and deals preferably with 
themes of less passionate utterance, yet with no less sincerity of 
expression. In his songs, at any rate, Loeffler shows more the 
Debussy influence; but he is far from being a mere imitator: 
his own artistic personality is too vigorous for that. 

His latest songs as far as I know them, The Wind Among 
the Reeds (W. B. Yeats), published in 1908 it seems incred- 
ible that there should be no songs of more recent date than 
these are delightfully imaginative, and expressed with all the 
charm of style that we have come to expect from him. Per- 
haps, however, he never wrote a song of more tender beauty, of 
more expressive simplicity (for expressiveness may be simple!), 
than his earlier song To Helen (Edgar Allan Poe), 1906. 

To Helen Loeffler 






of yore, That gen-tly, o'er a per- fumed sea, The 



$& $& fe>. ^ 





wear- y, way-worn wan - dererbore 

To his own na - tive 

t?-e cortle 

Oopyrifht, 1906, by G. Schirmer 


Still unlike either our Swiss or French co-workers, is he from 
Australia, George F. Boyle (1886-)> but with a skill in expres- 
sion quite his own. Boyle's songs are very happy in their suc- 
cessful delineation of utterly diverse moods. A Spirit Haiwts 
the Year's Last Hours (Tennyson), 1922, is, of course, dull grey 


throughout, and the sombre color of the text is reproduced in the 
music with extraordinary fidelity; but so ably done, and with 
such musicianship, that there is no monotony of effect. In Proud 
Maisie, Boyle gives us an extremely interesting treatment of Sir 
Walter Scott's fantastic verses. One is tempted to dwell on his 
clever use of cross rhythms, of dark and gloomy harmonization of 
the simplest melody, all serving to accentuate the sinister portent 
of the words. One technical point is much in evidence almost a 
mannerism, in fact. What the subdominant color is to Wintter 
Watts, such is the verbatim repetition in the accompaniment of 
a closing phrase in the voice part, to Boyle. He uses it time 
and again in all his songs. But here so clearly do these short, 
reiterated phrases seem to reinforce the mood that is past or 
anticipate the mood that is to come, that they become a very 
important element in his interpretational mechanism. Eugene 
Field's exquisite Little Blue Pigeon receives equally sympathetic 
and attractive setting, while Breath of Roses (Strickland Galli- 
lan) is a bit of pure lyricism. All these songs are of 1922. 

Of our own American-born members of this modernist group, 
first place should be given to Charles T. Griffes (1884-1920). 
I know of nothing in this field finer than his Three Poems by 
Fiona MacLeod (Lament of Ian the Proud, Thy Dark Eyes to 
Mine, The Rose of the Night), 1918, and In a Myrtle Shade 
(William Blake) and Wai Kiki (Rupert Brooks), also 1918, 
with the possible addition of the Two Poems by John Masefield 
An Old Song Resung and Sorrow of Mydath issued posthu- 
mously, 1920. In all of Griffes' work there is present the same 
sense of logical development, of artistic sincerity, that we see in 
the case of Ernest Bloch. In fact it would seem that there is 
more than a superficial kinship between their artistic natures. 

With the opening section of Marion Bauer's Roses Breathe 


in the Night (Margaret Widdemer), published in 1921, it 
seemed quite evident that the composer was beginning to find 
her true self. Her means of obtaining a remarkably attractive 
atmospheric effect were simple but unusual, reminding one of a 
similarly clever device in Duparc's Chanson Triste. This grow- 
ing power of self-expression has fully flowered in Four Poems* 
Op. 16, to texts by John Gould Fletcher, 1924, which form a not- 
able contribution to American Song. Here, once more, we see it 
made perfectly clear that the freest possible use of modern color 
and effect is entirely compatible with an underlying sense of form 
and a very real appreciation of the value of an expressive 
melodic line, as we have already seen it so abundantly proved in 
the songs of Griffes. Indeed, in easy command of modern tech- 
nique, in rich pictorial quality, in vivid play of the imagination 
and sustained dramatic interest, these songs may worthily take 
their place beside Griffes' own. 

Frederick Jacobi (1891-) has written few songs, but their 
quality is in an inverse ratio to their quantity. His two songs 
to texts by Chaucer, Rondel and Ballade^ ( 1 923 ) , are the work 
of a thoroughgoing musician, written in the quaint old-fashioned 
style absolutely appropriate to their text. The Ballade is par- 
ticularly vivacious and abounds in telling effects. Ever since 
it was issued in 1918, The Faery Isle of Janjira (Sarojini 
Naidu) has been one of my most treasured songs, notable for 
the aristocratic elegance of its rhythms and deft melodic touches. 
In the Night, from the same set of three songs to texts by the 
same author, is only second in interest and attractiveness, and 
the remaining Love and Death is a dramatic song of great emo- 
tional power. 

I have never been quite able to grasp why the Orient should 
seem to possess such an overwhelming appeal for our song- 
writers. One can understand the attractiveness of writing in 
an idealized oriental atmosphere, as Carpenter has done in 


Water Colors; there it is a matter of tone-color, but still attrac- 
tive and comprehensive to Western ears. But when Emerson 
Whithorne (1884-) writes almost exclusively to Chinese texts, 
and chooses not to mitigate what seems to us the uncouthness of 
either rhythm, melody, or harmonic background, he is of course 
entirely within his rights, but it certainly cannot fail to diminish 
his audience materially, for to most of us a very little of any- 
thing so entirely foreign to our own idiom suffices. For this 
reason I can admire all the cleverness and ingenuity he puts into 
these songs from a distance! It is only when he comes to a 
text like Walt Whitman's Invocation (1921), that I feel able to 
meet him on common ground. This is a massive and powerful 
song; and while there are moments in which the harmonization 
seems unnecessarily vague and obscure, still the song is laid out 
with great skill and effectiveness. The marche funebre motif 
at the beginning and the end is both impressive and touching, 
while the final climax is of great dramatic vigor. In very dif- 
ferent mood is Pierrette and I (Hugh McCrac), 1922, a slight 
bit of fantasy, but wonderfully attractive in its deliciously acrid 
harmonization. Unusually suave for Whithorne, in its general 
outline, is his setting of Eugene Field's The Babe in the Garden 
(1917). The finest thing that has come from his hand, how- 
ever, is the recent The Grim Troubadour, Op. 45 (Countee 
Cullen) , for voice and string quartet (1927) . Here, along with 
most modern feeling for subtle harmonic color, interesting 
rhythms, and the like, we yet find an expressive vocal line, ex- 
quisitely molded, to conform to every nuance of the text; the 
whole song (there are three sections) convincing in every detail 
an artistic and beautiful piece of work. 

Excellent use of voice and strings is also made in Arthur 
Shepherd's (1880-) Triptych for High Voice and String 
Quartet (1927), text by Tagore. The three movements are 
admirably individualized and interestingly portrayed. It is 

1900-1930 147 

thoughtful, sincere, musicianly music. Shepherd also published 
in the Wa-Wan Press that interesting American nationalistic 
experiment of the early twentieth century Five Songs, Op. 7 
(1907) , poems by Lowell, of which There is a Light in Thy Blue 
Eyes and The Lost Child are particularly to be mentioned, the 
former for the buoyancy of its mood, the latter, the richness of 
its texture. The composer's sense of natural and spontaneous 
declamation stands him in good stead in all these songs. 

Another attraction seemingly very potent these days is 
toward the setting of free verse, and the freest of free verse at 
that. We find an interesting case of this in Carl Engel's three 
Amy Lowell songs, OpaZ, A Decade and A Sprig of Rosemary^ 
(1922) . These settings are as truly imagist as the verses them- 
selves. There is much of the later Scriabin about them, the 
same rhythmic vitality, the same intellectuality (there is no loose 
thinking here, as in so much of the ultramodernist writing of 
today), even a similar tonal scheme. 

Opal is lurid, volcanic, brusque, with a powerful and com- 
pelling harmonization. But is it a song? Or is A Decade? 
I would give a very great deal to hear this latter in orchestral 
dress, with the oboe taking the melody instead of the voice. It 
would make a most pathetic and expressive intermezzo in the 
midst of some stormy orchestral tone poem. But is there any 
conceivable connection between its mood expression and that of 
"morning bread," "red wine and honey"? On the other hand, 
A Sprig of Rosemary is in very truth a song, to my mind the 
only one of the three. They are all instrumentally effective, 
but only as absolute music; and except in the case of this one, 
seem merely marred by the attaching of words that too, in 
spite of the great expertness with which the declamation is 
handled. Here, however, we are conscious of no lack of cohesion 
between the music and the vocal line of the text; they form an 
organically unified whole. We quote the skilfully handled final 
cadence : 




A Sprig of Rosemary Engel 
poco accfl poco nf 

poco arcfl. poco cresc. poco nt 

to to 

Copyright, 1922, by G. Schirmer, Inc. 

Interesting as are these three songs in showing Engel's com- 
mand of manifold resources, they do not compare in general 
interest, it seems to me, with his Chansons Intimes (Jean 
Moreas), 1910. In these six songs we find the utmost variety 
of mood, interpreted with great skill. Not only has our com- 
poser shown himself keenly sensitive to these various moods, but 
he has had the ability to express them worthily in his music 
from the stark ruggedness of A Vocean to the exquisite tender- 

1900-1930 149 

ness and grace of Mer natale. En outre, too, is most sym- 
pathetically and attractively done. 

Granting, however, that any text whatsoever may be set to 
music, and in any way whatsoever, Engel has shown in his 
Amy Lowell songs how it may be done with consistency and a 
sense of logical procedure. It is this saving grace in his case 
which seems to be so woefully lacking in certain other treatments 
of similar texts, as for instance the Free Verse Songs of Rupert 
Hughes (1872-). Here, barring a few measures which show 
some signs of rhyme and reason, we have only a mass of conglom- 
erate details, with no apparent feeling of unity whatever, no 
development, no semblance of logical sequence. Hughes has 
shown, however, that his mind does not always and necessa- 
rily travel in this zigzag fashion, in such songs as his setting 
of Shakespeare's 71st Sonnet under the title Remember Not 
(1922), which though rather uncouth in its expression, is a 
sincere and expressive song. Quite unusually successful is his 
rhythmic and tonal treatment of the words "Than you shall hear 
the surly, sullen bell." 

Two interestingly atmospheric settings in the ultramodern 
manner are those of John Beach (1877-) to Carl Sandburg's 
Passers-By and Clark Street Bridge (1923). Whatever may 
be our opinion as to the advisability of setting such texts as these 
to music, there can be no question as to the musicianliness with 
which Beach has done his work. In both songs his harmonic 
scheme is logical and interesting. With all its nebulousness in 
expressing, as he does, monotony of movement, the distant roar 
of the city, mist and the like, there is all the time the sense of an 
underlying vigorous organism. 

The same and more may be said of his recent setting of two 
Oppcnheim poems Wings and The Cup of Dew, both 1928. 
In all these later songs Beach disregards entirely the vocal line 
as such. The voice part at times consists of little more than free 



declamation, at times rises for a brief moment to true melody; 
the purpose clearly being to present in any interesting way the 
mood picture of the text, makng use of any appropriate means 
to that end least of all to write a song in the old accepted sense 

The Cup of Dew Beacn 

3) i iiJ 

Dew of the stars 

and of the 





in-to the cup of my be- seech-ing hands,. 


Copyright, IW2H, by O. Schtrmer 



of the word. Granting this premise, as above, in the songs of 
Carl Engel, we can but admire the skill and musicianship with 
which Beach has accomplished his task. We quote from The 
Cup of Dew. 

We scarcely think of Oscar G. Sonneck (1873-1928) as a 
song-writer, having known him so long as musicologist, editor, 
librarian; but he published a goodly sheaf of songs, and was a 
capable and sincere interpreter of his texts. To Helen (how 
beloved of song-composers is this exquisite lyric of Poe's!) is 
perhaps his best song, 1917. Studies in Song, Op. 19 (1923), 
is stimulating though not conclusive. To a Golden-Haired Girl 
is harmonically rich, but in no sense ultramodern; it is in the 
fluidity of its rhythm and the freedom of its declamation that we 
feel its modernity. Its twenty-three measures include the fol- 
lowing time-signatures :t2Zt2$5V2t2t> showing its unusual 
rhythmic ebb and flow. 

Alexander Stcinert, Jr., has written several songs of modern 
type, Footsteps in the Sand (Elizabeth Gunn), 1922, being 
quite in the ultra-Russian and French manner. It is fortunate 
that Steinert has a strong, fundamental feeling for rational 
harmonization, for its wholesome influence is felt even in 'this 
song, and he never quite loses his sense of direction as do so 
many in threading the labyrinthine ways of modern musical art. 

To a Golden Haired Girl Sonneck 
With u-ndcrly romantic emotion p 

arc a 

if'MJJff t'*l)/^Si 

ma seMDitce 



sun - rise, If a star should rise in-stcnd of the 


% s f 1, , 

H h- 

' * - iN 

1 t M \ r s+ ~0~~m 


a r r TV > 

moon-rise, If a 

star sliould con:** in the: phrc_ of the 

tf^'^j ] i 


-F r 

*a r: *-* "' 



? __ ^^2.- -' 

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it ^ r F 

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Copyright, l'^3, by Composer*. 1 Music Corporation 

And yet one can but wonder just why it is necessary, nowadays, 
to make use of quite such elaborate machinery to express one's 
thoughts! Are we so complex in our thinking as it would seem? 
Is simplicity and clarity of thought a lost art? Are our ideas 

1900-1930 153 

really so much greater and deeper and more comprehensive than 
those of Beethoven, Wagner, Schumann and Brahms, that even 
in accompanying a simple song we must needs make use of 
three staves, all of them as full of notes as they may comfortably 
be? As far as my own modest judgment goes, I find it difficult 
to forget the point made in my early training, that a composer's 
ideas arc often in inverse proportion to the number of his notes ! 
Not at all so extreme in any way, and of a far lovelier texture, 
is Steinert's earlier song, My Lady of Clouds (Lillian Gertrude 
Shuman), 1921. 

The later songs of Frederic Ayres (1876-1926), while not 
ultramodern in any sense whatever, are powerful, impressive 
songs of a certain masculine ruggedness of style that is very 
heartening. The Three Songs published in 1921 represent him 
at his best Triumph (William Vaughn Moody) being one of 
the most telling songs published in America in recent years. In 
the declamation of the text, in its harmonization and general 
mood expression, it is a big, heroic song (see Ex. 65) . The Song 
of the PantJian Girl (Kipling) is notable for the manner in which 
the original background is suggested rather than actually pre- 
sented, which, as I have already stated, is (to my mind, at least) 
the more artistic method. The dirge-like rhythms in Strong as 
Death (H. C. Bunner ) are presented with unusual skill. 

Among Arthur Farwell's (1872-) songs The Wild Flower's 
Song (1920) is attractive in its simplicity of style, exactly 
fitting the William Blake text. This simplicity is retained 
throughout the song, in spite of the fact that the harmonies are 
rich and novel. In this combination of simple feeling and rich 
harmonic color it is a notable song. The same also may be said 
of Qn a Faded Violet (1927), one of his settings of Three Poems 
by Shelley, Op. 43. Although this later song abounds in the 
most modern harmonic effects, it nevertheless is able to maintain 



a studied simplicity, which but adds to the effectiveness of its 
subtle characterization (see Ex. 66). 


Triumph Ayres 

Of wounds and sore de-feat 

Vnng'd san-dals for my 


I wove of mv de - lay; 


Copvnght. l^-'l, by G 



On a Faded Violet Farwell 
r tf/t mote warmth and motion 


A shnv-cll'd, 1 ife -less, va- cant form, 





icb on my a - ban - don'd breast, 


mock-, tin 1 heart which vet 



Copyright, 1927, by G. Schirmer, Inc. 

Daughter of Ocean of the same set of songs shows fine vigor and 
sweep. Another recent song of similar spirit, though more 
tragically colored, is Dark Her Lodge Door, Op. 69, No. 3 
(Charles Roos), 1927, in which Farwell makes interesting use 
of an Indian motif. Of Three Dickinson Poems (1928), Sum- 
mer Shower, Op. 73, No. 1, is appropriately of the daintiest, 
most filmy substance, Mine, Op. 73, No. 2, an exultant paean, 
intense both in color and mood, while The Sea of Sunset, Op. 26, 
is painted with broad brush, though of a languorous movement, 
which well interprets "the western mystery." It is doubtful, 
however, if Farwell ever wrote a more powerful song than The 
0. Op. 69, No. 1 (Charles O. Roos), 1929. 

Here the sombre melody, set against the dirge-like accompani- 
ment with its unceasing, sinister drum-beats, is handled with 
great skill. The dark color of the whole, yet with no monotony 
of effect, indicates interpretative and technical craftsmanship of 
a high order. All of FarwelPs recent songs show fine command 
of modern harmonization. 

Howard Brockway (1870-) has gained an excellent name 
for himself through his Lonesome Tunes (1916) and Kentucky 
Mountain Songs (1920), prepared in collaboration with Loraine 
Wyman. These are exceedingly interesting arrangements of 
unsuspected old English ballads and folk-songs in our very 

1900-1930 157 

midst. Brockway has made the ground quite his own and has 
done his work with ingenuity and true musicianliness. Nor 
should we overlook his unusually attractive song, An Answer 
(Owen Bruner), 1911, the delicate fragility of whose harmonies 
reminds us not unworthily of MacDowell's Midsummer Lullaby. 

For a pure lyric gift, expressed always with simplicity but 
with never-failing grace, we have no composer to surpass Alex- 
ander Rihm (1870-). Of his Three Songs published in 1918, 
Thou and I (Sidney Lanier) is a perfectly finished lied of the 
true German type and might without shame be signed by a 
Schumann himself. Her Lullaby (Lorena Zeller), while of 
conventional material, is marked by many artistic touches. The 
third song, The Rose (Sara Teasdale), is utterly charming 
from its first note to its last, in its fluency of utterance and yet 
rich musicianship. One rarely finds a song of such transparent 
texture and yet no hint of the commonplace. Rihm's skill in 
handling contrapuntal melodies is abundantly shown in To One 
Away and Joy both to Sara Teasdale texts the latter being 
one of the best settings I know of these popular verses, in the 
vigor of its themes and their handling. Pack, Clouds, Away 
(Thomas Hey wood) is of appropriately facile technique, and 
Sara Teasdale's Wood Song, while somewhat unoriginal, is char- 
acterized by Rihm's unfailing refinement of style (all of 1919). 

Henry Hadley's (1871-) songs show the technical dexterity 
we should expect from him; and of late have disclosed an in- 
creasing solidity of workmanship. His early song / Plucked a 
Quitt from Cupid's Wing (Aubrey Boucicault), 1900, will never 
lose its freshness ; and similar in the spontaneity of its expression 
is the later song, The Lute-Player of Casa Blanca (Laurence 
Hope), 1921. Of unwonted seriousness and restraint is Stitte, 
traumende Friihlingsnacht (Otto Julius Bierbaum), 1911, and 
II pleut des pttales de fleurs (Alfred Samain), 1909, is a most 
engaging mood picture. Mr. Hadley's harmonization of the 



passage beginning "quelle est done" is as felicitous as it is un- 



II pleut des petales de fleurs Hadley 


L'a - rnour 
Thy love 

lourd, mon a me 
dull, I tire 

cst las - sc: 
of lov - ing: 



Copyright, iy(y, by G. Schirmer 

But perhaps the very best songs he has yet written are The 
Time of Parting (Tagore), 1921, and Colloque Sentimentale 
(Verlaine), 1923. The latter of course challenges comparison 
with Debussy's setting of the same text, and while it lacks the 
eerie quality of the French song (particularly Debussy's organ- 
point maintained with such uncanny effect throughout the entire 
ghostly conversation), is in most respects, it seems to me, su- 
perior. Not so extreme in its characterization, it still obtains 
the appropriate atmosphere and is a fine, musicianly song. The 
Time of Parting is less involved, less dramatic in treatment, but 
no less effective. 

Portraits (1919), a cycle of five poems by Walter de La 
Mare, is perhaps David Stanley Smith's (1877-) most notable 
contribution to our song literature. Of these Portraits, Rachel, 
and The Scarecrow are the most successful. The former is a 
thoughtful, subjective song with a well-defined atmosphere. 
The Scarecrow is a clever bit of characterization of entirely 
different type. The earlier Love's Music (Philip Bourne 
Marston), 1907, has fine dramatic sweep end fervor. 

Probably no song-writer among us has enjoyed greater 
popular success than has Richard Hageman (1882-), with his 
picturesque songs At the Well (1919), May Night (1917) and 
Do not Go, My Love (1917) , all to Tagore texts. Also Happi- 


ness (Jean Ingelow), 1920, is a fine buoyant song with a re- 
markably sonorous piano score, as is Me Company Along (James 
Stephens), 1925. Hageman has the happy knack of writing 
brilliantly, but with no lack of sincerity, albeit, as must be 
admitted, objectively. The truly subjective song is probably 
beyond his ken. Thy Heart is Like a Tomb (Jacques Boria), 
1921, refined and beautiful as it is, is yet perceptibly lacking in 
human warmth. 

Charles Fonteyn Manney (1872-) discloses in his songs an 
attractive lyricism well exemplified in the cycle of six songs, 
A Shropshire Lad, Op. 22 (A. E. Housman), 1911. His feel- 
ing for refined tone color is evidenced in our quotation from the 
fifth song, With rue my heart is laden. His later song Then 
Finish the Last Song (Tagore), 1922, is more dramatically con- 
ceived than most of his work. 

John Powell (1882-) has published few songs, but To a 
Butterfly and Phantoms (1921) are admirable settings of John 
B. Tabb's fanciful lines. The piano score is rich and elaborate, 
yet not heavy, expressed indeed with a delightfully light touch. 

Of the same type, but showing great advance in technical 
resource, is Dawn of Spring , Op. 25, No. 1 (Karl Burger) , 1927. 
That Mr. Powell can write in more serious vein is well shown in 
Frage, Op. 18, No. 2 (Lenau), 1924. That he is also in con- 
stant danger of overcrowding his canvas, of making the vocal 
line subordinate to mere pianistic display, is evident in all his 
songs ; but nowhere more strikingly shown than in No, Op. 25, 
No. 2 (Karl Burger), 1927, where in the very midst of a song 
as simple in its content as Schubert's Heidenroslein we find a 
full-chord cadenza which might have come out of a Liszt piano 

In The Flight of the Moon (Oscar Wilde), 1914, Carl Deis 
(1883-) has written a worthy companion piece to Charles T. 


1900-1930 161 

A Shropshire Lad Manney 




p dolce 



with rrtitiauied *'jrp7ef>8iOH 

poco rail 

J J I J 

The light - foot boys are 

brooks too broad for leap -ing 

U |,J J 

sleep - ing In fields where ros 



Copyright, 1911, by Oliver Diteon Company 

Griffes' setting of the same text. It is interestingly and poeti- 
cally conceived throughout. Two Plaints for Voice and Piano 
(1920), The Waning (Longfellow) and A Lover's Lament 
(William Martin Johnson) are attractive interpretations of two 
very diverse moods. 

With the attractive song Palazzo Pagani (Wilfred Scawen 
Blunt), 1921, Edward Ballantine (1886-) took his place among 
the worth-while younger American song-writers. It showed him 
to be possessed of a rich harmonic sense, excellent craftsman- 
ship, imagination, true musicianship. His first song, it is still 
perhaps his best. 

In 1922 appeared Lyrics from the Greek, seven songs in 
all, the texts translated from the original Greek by Lilla Cabot 
Perry. These songs skilfully portray various different moods. 
The opening section of My Star is admirable in the simplicity 
of its treatment, its melodic breadth, and the very real depth of 
feeling at the words "Ah! would that I might be." 

Also in 1922 appeared The Oak Tree, another interesting 



setting from the same source; in 1926, Night at the Mission (J. 
L. McLane, Jr.). 

George Harris delights in elaborate accompanimental pat- 
terns which he often uses with excellent effect. In The Ship 
Starting (Walt Whitman), 1925, the "spreading sails," the 

Andante tranquillo 

p poco cresc. 

My Star Ballantme 

Thou gaz-est on the stars, 

p a tempo 

My- self those skies with 



Copyright, 192Z, by Tbe Arthur P Schmidt Co 

"emulous waves," are skilfully portrayed in this manner. Simi- 
larly in Life is Sweet, Brother (George Borrow), also 1925, they 
serve to give pictorial value to the "wind on the heath." In 
his later songs, as Fleet Street (Shane Leslie), The Wine-cup 
(Richard Aldington) and Four Tuscan Ris petti, all 1927, he 
seems to employ these patterns for sheer pleasure in them as such. 
Often, as in Fleet Street, there is an appropriateness in the mood 
expressed but the songs are decidedly instrumental rather than 
vocal, with little attempt at interpretative effect. Love's Lily, 
perhaps the most successful of the Rispetti, is a charming study 
in purity and delicacy of line. That it expresses the mood of 
the poem any further than in this very fragility of style is 
much to be doubted. As a song, therefore, its success is open to 
question ; as absolute music it is a delight. 

1900-1930 (CONTINUED) 

Arthur Bird, Timothy Mather Spelman, Templeton Strong, 
Louis Campbell-Tipton, Blair Fairchild 

JUST as we have welcomed Bloch and Loeffler and Boyle into 
our own musical fellowship, so in turn we have helped contrib- 
ute to the musical culture of other lands. Templeton Strong since 
1892 at Vevey and Geneva, Blair Fairchild since 1903 at Paris, 
Arthur Bird from 1886 up to his death (1924) at Berlin, Louis 
Campbell-Tipton from 1905 until his death in 1921 at Paris, 
Timothy Mather Spelman established in Italy these are some 
of our distinguished sons and brothers who in Europe are con- 
sidered American, in America almost as Europeans. With their 
works published and performed in Europe, with their musical 
ties firmly established there, it is not strange that their names 
have but a faintly familiar and distant sound in our ears. 

Perhaps the best work of Arthur Bird (1856-1924) is found 
in the Five Songs, Op. 36 (1896). Of these songs, the fourth, 
When Cupid is Blind, is likely the most satisfactory, showing 
hints of an unwonted effort to get a little below the surface, bits 
of imitative counterpoint, a rather broadly conceived obbligato 
melody in the piano-part, glints here and there of unaccustomed 
richness in the harmonic scheme. But even here it fails to pene- 
trate very deeply, it never quite attains to being a truly distinc- 
tive or notable song. 

So that in place of the meticulous care with which Templeton 
Strong or Blair Fairchild works out his problems the insist- 
ence on just the right bit of harmonic color here, the right tonal 



nuance there, the delicate adjustment of the one to the other 
in place of this persistent thoughtfulness, developing at times 
into a deeply subjective mood, we find in the writing of Arthur 
Bird the utmost objectivity. Nor is it entirely without a certain 
attractiveness in its care-free, fluent motion. At times it is even 
brilliant, but it is seldom thoughtful, never in the slightest de- 
gree introspective. 

It is indeed a far cry from Arthur Bird to Timothy Mather 
Spelman (1891-), from the naivete of mid-Victorianism to the 
almost belligerent independence of all tradition, so characteristic 
of this present close of the first quarter of the twentieth century. 

No dissonance is too biting for Spelman, no harmoniza- 
tion too acrid, and yet underlying it all is that feeling for logical 
sequence, that ability to follow steadily and unwaveringly one's 
chosen path through whatever labyrinth, that is always charac- 
teristic of the sincere and conscientious creative worker. His 
songs all give evidence of this fact. Each is strongly individual, 
the mood expression and technical processes constantly chang- 
ing. In The Surf and Symbols of Winter (1924) all of Spel- 
man's songs are to texts by his wife, Leolyn Louise Everett we 
find the sardonic humor of the former and the dreary, desolate 
cold of winter in the latter, admirably suggested. The dark, 
portentous mood of The Sea Witch contrasts with the subtle and 
filmy character of the Serenade, as does the vivid human passion 
of The Curse with the impersonal, aery Satyr's Song (all of 
1925). This last is very attractive in its mood of poetic un- 
reality, so deftly expressed in its unusually effective piano score. 
In fact it seems the most unequivocally successful of all Spel- 
man's songs. 

Of Templeton Strong, the earliest songs that I know are 
Drei Gesange, Op. 32 (1887), Spinnerlied, Geistcrndhe and 
Friedel excellent songs, in the then all-prevalent German style. 
Geisterndhe is written with laudable restraint and appropriate 

1900-1930 (Continued) 


atmosphere, while Friedel is attractively spontaneous and buoy- 
ant, albeit the diction is at times wrenched out of its proper line 
to fit the musical idea. In 1892 were published Three Songs, 
Op. 38, this time to Elizabethan texts, Shall a smile or grateful 
glance (William Corkine), Come, ah come, my life's delight 
(Thomas Campion) and Philon (William Byrd), again excel- 
lent songs of their type, the last two being notable for the 
charmingly original and effective interludes between the verses. 
The Songs of an American Peddler (1922) show all of Strong's 
technical skill, the never-failing effectiveness of his writing, and 
were it not for the bitter cynicism of their texts, original with 
the composer, would all be notable songs. As it is, The Brook, 


Songs of an American Peddler Templeton Strong 




Copyright, 1922, by Ad. Henn, Geneva, Switzerland 

happily free from this baleful influence, is a captivating piece 
of work whose piano score illustrates to perfection Strong's fre- 
quent delicacy of line and purity of style. Unfortunately, the 
latest song to come from his pen, An Indian Chief's Reply 
(1926), continues the strain of bitterness we have referred to, 
and thus is its own undoing. 

As in his writing for piano Campbell-Tipton (1877-1921), 
never surpassed his early Sonata Heroic, so in his songs the 
Four Sea Lyrics (1907) remain among his best. To these texts 
by Arthur Symons he has given very sympathetic and attractive 
settings. After Sunset and Darkness are both musicianly songs 
and skilfully welded together by means of a common phrase 
introduced into both songs an effect also carried out in the 

1900-1930 (Continued) 169 

remaining two songs, The Crying of Water and Requies, of the 
same high order. The Opium-Smoker and A Memory, also of 
1907, and also to texts by Arthur Symons, are again admirable. 
But strangely enough we now enter upon a period of unexpected 
sterility so far as his songs are concerned. There are plenty of 
them, to be sure, but they say little and that little for the most 
part in a distinctly commonplace way: The Shadows (1907), A 
Spirit Flower (1908), much sung but nevertheless a mediocre 
song; Two Short Love Lyrics: Homeward and Love's Logic 
(1910); Hymn to the Night (1910), All the Words that I 
Gather (1911). It is only with the Two Jester Songs, Op. 31 
(1912), that our composer begins to hark back to his former 
more distinctive manner. With the Rhapsodie, Op. 32, No. 1 
(1913) and Invocation, Op. 32, No. 2 (1915), he seems once 
more to have found himself, and these two songs are poetically 
conceived, dramatic, expressive, musicianly. His last published 
work, the song Day's End, issued the year of his death, 1921, is 
in his favorite free, recitative style, and there are moments of 
great expressiveness and beauty. 

It is interesting to see how the external life of Louis Camp- 
bell-Tipton in many respects has paralleled that of Blair Fair- 
child (1877-). Born at very nearly the same time, they both 
took up their permanent abode in Paris in the early nineteen 
hundreds, where Campbell-Tipton died in 1921 at the age of 
thirty-four. Happily the parallel ceases here, for Fairchild is 
still busily writing, with, we hope, many years of composition 
ahead of him. 

But while we have been able to trace this comparatively close 
parallel in their outward life, no such similarity exists in their 
inner musical experience. We shall see how constant has been 
the fluidity of Fairchild's self-expression, how he has taken to 
himself and made part of himself the varying currents of con- 
temporary musical art. Not so with Campbell-Tipton. His 


latest work is as his earliest work and conforms to the same 
general type, with the same excellence and the same defects. 
While Fairchild shows decided French influence, Campbell-Tip- 
ton maintains the German idiom throughout. 

In taking up the songs of Blair Fairchild we first note the 
collection of twenty-six Canti Popolari Itcdiani, issued in five 
different sets, and running through a number of years as fol- 
lows: Op. 5 (1901), Op. 14 (1907), Op. 23 (1911), Op. 30 
(1912), in which the composer has caught the particular nuance 
of Italian folk-melody; these followed in 1922 by an additional 
group of six Storjielli Toscani. In 1904? appeared an interest- 
ing collection of twelve Persian folk-songs, personally collected 
by Fairchild. A greater contrast could scarcely be conceived 
than that between the Italianate melody of the Canti and Stor- 
nelli end these weird melodies of the East. 

In The Baghdad Lover, a cycle of nine songs, Op. 25 
(1911), Fairchild gives free rein to his fondness for whole- 
tone effects. In So Much I Lore we find the beginning of the 
type of song which he afterward developed with striking success 
the introspective song with simple melodic line but richly 
textured piano score. With What Moon Shall Find Thee we 
discover another type in which Fairchild excels the melody 
similarly lyric and simple, with the accompaniment now charac- 
terized by a definite, but subtle, rhythmic pattern. We shall 
find excellent use made of this type later on. Serenade shows a 
typical plucked-string accompaniment worthy to be compared 
with Debussy's Mandoline, Brahms' Standchen, and other songs 
of this type. 

For Op. 28 (1911), we return to the Canti Popolari, where 
in the midst of the Italian melody we begin to detect a new note 
in this particular type, an added richness in the scoring, here and 
there the elsewhere familiar augmented harmony, once even a 
fragment of whole-tone melody, but still the fluent Italian line. 

1900-1930 (Continued) 171 

Probably a world-wide search for material could scarcely have 
afforded better practice in writing natural, spontaneous melody 
than the setting of these songs of Tuscany. 

With Op. 30 (1912), we find the final numbers of the Canti 
Popolari in duet form and showing ever-increasing harmonic 
richness and fullness in the piano score. 

With the Five Greek Sea Prayers, Op. 35 (1913) we reach 
the beginning of Fairchild's maturer writing for the solo voice, 
writing which from now on is convincing, effective, original. 
These songs are of the type which we come later to identify as the 
prevailing Fairchild type characterized by rich, full texture in 
the piano score, with a harmonization which while never cloying, 
yet abounds in a full chordal effect with subtle shifting of colors. 
The melodic line is generally subordinate but never tentative or 
uncertain; and, of course, at times it asserts its proper inde- 
pendence. Fairchild shows many varieties of technique in the 
handling of songs, but it is quite evident from its frequent use 
that this is a favorite type, and well it may be, for he has written 
many delightful songs in this idiom. 

The Baghdad Lover, as we have seen, served to indicate the 
line which he was later to develop so admirably, and the Greek 
Sea Prayers carry it on with ever increasing command of re- 
sources. Particularly interesting is Worship in Spring with its 
striking, dissonant climax at the words "or the Sicilian shingle." 
It is interesting to note that this song's opening phrase "Ocean 
lies purple in calm" is set to a three-note motif which is to ap- 
pear and reappear throughout the cycle Les Quatrains d'Al- 
Ghazali, to be considered later. 

Les Amours de Hafiz, Op. 38 (1914), is a cycle of seven 
songs of great interest Le soir parfume being distinguished 
for its simple and yet rich coloring and the thematic interplay 
between voice and piano ; Dans la nuit profonde for its delicacy 
of line; Oh regarde-moi and Extase for their clarity and lyri- 



cism, the latter as well for a clever opposition of rhythms between 
voice and piano. 

With the Quatrains d'Al-Ghazali, Op. 40 (1915), we find his 
finest endeavors in the field of song. This cycle is typical of 
the French school and shows an opulence of harmonic effects 
scarcely surpassed by any French composer, be he Duparc, 
Chausson, Debussy or whosoever. The recurring motif men- 
tioned a moment ago consists of three ascending seconds, form- 
ing 5, 6, 7 of a seventh chord, or 7, 8, 9 of a chord of the ninth, 
which set against its appropriate seventh or ninth harmony 
forms a very expressive phrase. It appears for the first time at 
the words "Viens 6 bien aimee" in the first song, Le Grand 
Jardin d'Azur. The second song, mon Amour has as a not- 
able characteristic a certain chromatically vibrating figure in 
the accompaniment, at once effective and original. The scoring 
of Nocturne is peculiarly rich and full, with a striking fortissimo 
climax, as superb in its coloring as the not dissimilar closing 
climax in Duparc's Phidyle. 


Lcs Quatrains d'Al-Ghazali Fairchild 
p cretc. 

mmr \fWSr 

1900-1930 (Continued) 



_Corarae a cctte heu - 

3 > j 

- re! 

Copyright, 1915, by Au^ener, Ltd 

In Aimons-nous et revons the typical motif dominates the entire 



Les Quatrains d'Al-Ghazali Fairchild 

Ai-mous-nous et rc-vons 


k 5:1 
^*/ i 



nous n'au-rons pas tou-jours Cc citl. 

dc-vant nos 

5, by Augener, Ltd 

^ I'aimee and J/rar^ poZ^, as far as texture and rhythm 
are concerned are absolutely of the type of the earlier So Much 
I Love and What Moon Shall Find Thee, from The Baghdad 
Lover, but naturally much elaborated and enriched. The last 
pages of Heure pale, beginning "Je reve d'un amour Strange et 
sans pareil" are of passing beauty. 

1900-1930 (Continued) 


(73) p un pen pins vtfe 

Les Quatrains d'Al-Ghazali Fairchild 

- ve d'un a - mour e - trange et sans pa - 

'' J J 

Prcs.quescm-blable a dcs ca 

un pcu my s - ti - quo, 

C'p\ right, IHlfi, by Augrncr, I.t 


This entire cycle shows Fairchild's poetic feeling, interesting 
harmonization, flexibility of declamation, in striking manner. 

Songs "from the Chinese (1922) contains also much that is 
attractive. Here we begin to sense the influence of Stravinsky 
and his school, though Night and Plucking Rushes are still 
French in their suavity and charm, the latter, however, glimps- 
ing the newer idiom in certain phrases near the close. Deux 
chants popvlaires per sans (1922) are scored with the skill and 
appropriateness we should expect from Fairchild. 

The year 1922 saw also the publication of the six Stornetti 
Toscani referred to above, in which the composer has treated his 
Italian melody with ever increasing sympathy and success. In 
1928 appeared a further continuation of the songs from the 
Chinese with The Message, text from Mei Chang, and a song to 
English text, Drifting (Caroline Duer), both showing in marked 
degree the refined expression, the free play of color, the har- 
monic flexibility, so characteristic of Fairchild's later style. 

In the two finely differentiated songs, Coeur Embrase and 
Nuit d 9 te (both Lahor) 1930, we find once more all these 
qualities in evidence, and the fiery passion of the first is splen- 
didly delineated (it is perhaps the most dramatically conceived 
of all Fairchild's songs). The second, while no less appealing, 
is quieter and less intense. 

Of this same period are the following composers, with again 
a few recent representative songs : 

Louis ADOLPHE COERNE, 1870-1922 

I Rise from Dreamt of Thee (Shelley), 1921 



My April Lady (Van Dyke) 3 1909 



Four Song 9, Op. 5 (1900) 

1900-1930 (Continued) l|7t 


French-Canadian Songs, 1921 

D. G. MASON, 1873 

Cycle Russians (Witter Binner), 1920 


My Lover, He Comes on the Skee (H. H. Boyesen), 1901 



Four Songs, Op. 59, 1920 



Glory and Endless Years (Howells), 1921 



Song of the Open (Jessica Hawley Lowell), 1919 

J. H. DENBMORE, 1880 


Love-Free (Sara Teasdale), 1920 



The Fountain Court (Arthur Symons), 1916 

Wanderchild, 1922 


The Best is Yet to Be (Browning), 1921 




While the West is Paling (W. E. Henley), 1926 


Thou Hast Made Me Endlessl frv , 

T*\. T ' L* T f Vl a g re )j 1924 

The Light of Love ) v e " 



RALPH Cox, 1884 

April-tide (Clinton Scollard), 1917 

JAMES P. DUNN, 1884? 

Louis GRUENBERG, 1884 

A Fantasy (Bliss Carman), 1922 



A Caravan from China Comes (R. Le Gallienne), 1920 



Three Songs, Op. 13 (James Stephens), 1920 


Five Lyrics from Sara Teasdale, 1917 



Sudden Light (Rossetti), 1921 

April Light (Ruth Oliver), 1924- 

To an Invalid (Mary MacDougall), 1924 



Nocturne (Clinton Scollard), 1918 
Three Oriental Miniatures , 1926 


Four Songs from The Ifesperides (Herrick), 1921 

C. HUGO GRIMM, 1890 

May-dew (Samuel Lover), 1920 


The Victory Riders (Theodosia Garrison), 1920 


Two Loves (Charles Hanson Towne), 1918 

1900-1930 (Continued) 179 

Au Piano (Jean Labor), 1921 
A Song (Clinton Scollard), 1925 
Chanson de Grand-Pere (Victor Hugo), 1925 



Hush of the World (Maxwell S. Burt), 1923 
The Garden (Paul H. Bonner), 1924 



Seven Songs t 1910 


June (Arthur Guiterman), 1919 



A Ballad (Maurice Baring), 1921 
Eventide (Charlotte Bronte), 1921 
Two Songs from Chinese 


Spring Sadness (Helen Valentine), 1922 


A Caravan from China Comes (R. Le Gallienne), 1920 


Elizabethan Love Songs, Op. 13, 1921 


Cycle of Wistful Songs (after Goethe), 1921 




Cycle Miniature Recital Songs, 1921 



A Cry of the Orient, 1922 


Thy Dark Hair (James Mahoney), 1920 

Fragment*, 1924 

A Fair Lady (Helen Redington), 1925 



April (William Matson), 1904 

The Enchantress (Bliss Carman), 1904 



Three Hills (Everard Owen), 1922 



Love Sings a Song (F. H. Martens), 1922 


Slender Your Hands (Joyce Kilmer), 1925 
The Reveille (Minna Irving), 1925 


Reverie (Franz Lee Rickaby), 1927 

The Nightingale Has a Lyre of Gold (W. E. Henley), 1927 




Dusk (Seumas O'Sullivan), 1919 

In the Garden of the World (G. Baronti), 1919 

Song Is So Old (Hermann Hagedorn), 1919 


Early Spanish-American Folk Songs, 1922 


Evening Star (Poe), 1922 

1900-1930 (Continued) 181 


The Unknowing (Theodosia Garrison), 1919 
Three Songs from the Arabian (Toussaint), 1920 


Pierrot (Sara Teasdale), 1922 



Yohrzeit (Silberstein), 1919 
Yom Kippur (Silberstein), 1921 


The Little Angels of Heaven (Ford Madox Hueffer), 1923 


A Vagabond Song (Bliss Carman), 1926 

Similarly, coming to us from other lands : 



Euphonies, Six Songs, Op. 33 



Cycle Along the Hwang-Ho (Frederick H. Martens ), 1921 


Through the Silver Moon, 1921 
The Wind flowers, 1922 

and many others. 


1900-1930 (CONTINUED) 

Wintter Watts, John Alden Carpenter 

AND now, having taken this birds-eye view of the whole 
broad field of American song and in order that we may 
penetrate still more deeply into its spirit, not at all as Francis 
Hopkinson conceived it, nor as Parker, or Pease, or Buck, or 
Bartlett, but as it is being written in our very midst today, let 
us take for the purposes of this somewhat more intimate study, a 
small, compact group of representative writers, a survey of whose 
works may help to bring before us something of a composite 
picture of the various aspects of American song of today, or, 
perhaps, to speak more exactly, of American song of the past 

I have chosen Alice Barnett (1888-), John Alden Carpenter 
(1876-), Bainbridge Crist (1883-), Charles T. Griffes (1884- 
1920), A. Walter Kramer (1890-) and Wintter Watts (1884-), 
as perhaps best representing, both as regards the quality and 
quantity of their work, this cross section of contemporary 
American song. 

And I have further chosen to discuss the songs of Wintter 
Watts first, because more than any other in this group he seems 
to me to be thoroughly American in his work. It may well 
prove difficult to maintain this thesis to the satisfaction of others, 
for of course it is a very intangible thing this expression of 
one's nationality in his art. And again perhaps I shall find it 
even more difficult to defend my second proposition namely, 
that of this group, John Alden Carpenter is the least American ! 


1900-1930 (Continued) 183 

And this in the face of some one's declaration not long since that 
there is something essentially American about all his work. Now 
this does not mean that the Americanism of the one, or the non- 
Americanism of the other, betokens greater or less ability. That 
is entirely beside the question and does not enter into the con- 
tention at all. But Wintter Watts from the very beginning 
has seemed to embody in his songs many of our outstanding 
American characteristics. Even his earliest songs, Op. 2, 3 and 
4, are American to the core in the abounding enthusiasm which 
so evidently went into their construction. More often than not 
this enthusiasm was entirely misdirected, even into the most ex- 
travagant modes of expression. Imagine, for instance, Arthur 
Symons' pathetic Dreams set to music of the most flamboyant 
type ! It is youth, it is enthusiasm, and it is American ! It took 
years of time and much experience to overcome this element of 
the over-obvious in his work ; and one cannot say that it is even 
now entirely eliminated. But for the most part it has been trans- 
formed into a certain richness of texture which is very engaging. 
Subtle it may not be, but effective and American ! 

Watts' writing, from its beginning even up to the present, 
has never been distinguished for its originality; one is always 
coming upon something that has a familiar flavor, as in The 
Golden Rose, one of his loveliest songs, where we find the rhythm 
and general mood of a part of Wagner's Scene of the Flower 
Maidens reproduced almost literatim. But there are so many 
excellences in his songs that one would be a captious critic indeed 
who would dwell at length upon their minor defects. 

And the fine thing about his writing is that it has been 
broadening and developing with the years. His last songs are 
his best songs. His craftmanship has become increasingly sure, 
so that we may feel entire confidence that what he writes will be 
well written, as far as the technique of writing is concerned. His 
Americanism shows itself among other things in a direct, above- 


board mode of expression. He still has a fondness for some 
particular effects of a distinctly objective type, indicating a 
certain ingenuousness in his artistic make-up, which stands in no 
awe of those who would charge him with doing the straightfor- 
ward, everyday thing, of being less sophisticated then he might 
be. American again ! 

If we wish to study his songs somewhat in detail, we can 
perhaps best begin with Like Music on the Waters (Byron), 
published in 1908. This song is neither strikingly original nor 
modern in feeling, but so close knit is its texture, so smooth its 
contrapuntal weave, that in a sober, serious sort of way it is one 
of his most effective songs. The year 1919 was his banner year 
as far as publication is concerned, eight songs beside the cycle 
Vignettes of Italy having been issued in this year alone, and 
what is most important in the matter, all of them distinctive 
songs. The Poet Sings is to a text by Richard Le Gallienne, 
while two others and the above-mentioned cycle (nine songs in 
all) are settings of poems by Sara Teasdale. It is really re- 
markable to what extent her poems have been made use of in 
recent American song. Indeed, it is quite certain that if our 
younger American song-writers were to enter upon a plebiscite 
as to who should be crowned Poet Laureate in the kingdom of 
song, there would be no doubt as to the outcome ; their votes have 
already been cast in their songs. The Poet Sings, Love Me and 
Pierrot (these also to Sara Teasdale texts) are all effective bits 
of lyricism, each with its own distinctive appeal, \i\ Vignettes 
_gf_/{fl/y WP come to one of Watts' most ambitious produc- 
tions and thoroughly typical of his art. It is quite American 
in the elemental simplicity of its harmonic background (there is 
no impressionistic vagueness here), and the effects are gained by 
the most objective means. For this reason it is easy to see why 
the less subjective parts of the text are best realized; for in- 
stance, one of the most interesting things in the entire cycle is 

1900-1930 (Continued) 185 

the bell clangor in Ponte Vecchio, Florence, and this is exceed- 
ingly artistic in its presentment. There is nothing common- 
place about it it may well be compared with Debussy's Lcs 
Cloches, nor fear the comparison. 

Vignettes of Italy -^Watts' 

cease your toll - 

Copyright, 1919, by Oliver Ditson Company 



The forthrightness of his style does not lend itself easily to the 
expression of the more subtle moods and feelings, and hence 
Capri is disappointing. However, there are some attractive 
nuances in Addio and Stresa which produce a certain sym- 
pathetic plasticity of mood, notably at the words "When unex- 
pected beauty burns like sudden sunlight" in the first 

Vignettes of Italy Watts 


When un- ex - pcct - ed beau 

P sh im m erin^ delicately 

1900-1930 (Continued) 

- piu rijt. 


^ con Peffa/e 

Copyright, 1W19, by Oliver Ditson Co. 

and "The lake is a dreamy bride" in the last. 

Vignettes of Italy Watts 
i tempo b J 

Copyright. 1919. b> Olivt r Ditton Compui> 



The Piu mosso here also is well worked out. Throughout the 
cycle we find Watts' favorite devices, the bold J climax, the 
broad Brahms-like turn in the melody, and at "dewy flower" 
in Naples and "stars what I" in Night Song at Amalfi, one of 
his pet uses of the subdominant harmony, 


tardameHte congta-ia 

Vignettes of Italy Watts 

p| P B J* P 

I ask'd the heav'n 

of stars What I should give, 

Copyright, 191V, by Oliver Ditson Company 

for Watts is one of those composers not afraid to make use of the 
frank, open character of this chord. He uses it repeatedly in 
this and kindred ways. To be sure, one comes to look for it and 
it is probably overdone, but in many instances he derives great 
beauty from its use. 

Again, in the Five Songs published this same year we find 
much of interest. Utopia (Frances Turner Palgrave) is once 
most typical of Watts in his most accustomed mood. It is ex- 
ceedingly solid in its harmonic structure, non-futuristic to a 
degree, and while seemingly made up of familiar material, is suf- 
fused with such charm of color that it seems far from common- 
place. Indeed, this seems to be one of Watts' fundamentally 
American characteristics to take a perfectly familiar harmonic 
formula and so color it that while possessing all the personal 
interest of the known, the familiar, it is yet illumined by some 
rarer light than that of common every day ; a very happy com- 

1900-1930 (Continued) 


bination, for when all is said and done we Americans are most 
of us not particularly adventurous in our art tastes ; we do not 
want to go too far afield. In Golden Rose (Grace Hazard Conk- 
ling) we find the harmonization a bit more sophisticated and of 
great beauty ; it is only unfortunate, as we said above, that its 
parallel sixths should be so reminiscent of Wagner's Flower 
Maidens. Of still more piquant harmonic and rhythmic interest 
is The Little Shepherd's Song (13th century, Wm. Alexander 
Percy), 1922, while in A Little Page's Song (same authorship), 
1920, a song of equal attractiveness but of entirely different tech- 
nique, he reverts to his usual style. It is an exceedingly winsome 
song and the music mirrors to a nicety the naivete of the text. 
Tryste Noel (Louise Imogen Guiney) , 1921, shows once more the 
skill with which Watts is able to transfigure the simplest ma- 
terial. Here again the quaintness of the text has found full and 
sympathetic realization in the music. Quite at the opposite 
pole from these songs is Joy (1922), to the well-known verses of 
Sara Teasdalc. Its exuberance is a fit contrast to the wistful 
pathos of the Noel. Between the two comes Wings of Night 


Wings of Night Watts 
poco mf. 

My heart, like the bird in the tree, Is 

poco rit. 



(Sara Teasdale), 1921, one of the most poetic of all Watts' 
songs, and containing at the words "My heart, like the bird in 
the tree," one of those meaty harmonic progressions that we find 
so often in the songs of Brahms. This might well have been 
written by that master himself. With the Tide (Edward J. 
O'Brien), 1922, is, also, thoroughly characteristic; in fact, its 
first phrase might be said actually to epitomize Watts' style. 
Here is a superb, sweeping phrase for the voice, in bold out- 
line, and with the characteristic broad turn and the equally 
characteristic leaning toward the subdominant in its underlying 
harmony, exceedingly effective and exceedingly unoriginal ; and 
yet this underlying harmony is so skilfully handled and its 
outlines so softened that it is tranformed from what could so 

With the Tide Waits 

me a - cross the sun - set tide 

1900-1930 (Continued) 


float be - yond the wa - tors of the 

Copyright, 1ve2, by O- Schirmer, Inc. 

easily have become commonplace into something really admirable. 
Throughout the song the surge of the sea is excellently sug- 
gested, and the harmonic color becomes richer and richer, closing 
with one of Watts' most brilliant cadences. The Nightingale 
and the Rose (William Ernest Henley), 1922, is a striking 
song, developed a la Rimsky-Korsakoff with excellent success. 
It is decidedly no mere imitation. The long and elaborate pre- 
lude serves admirably to establish the mood of the song and to 
show once again Watts' unusual skill in adapting well-worn for- 
mulae to modern uses. Note the sequence at the words "While 
she triumphs waxing frail, fading even while she glows" with its 
combination of modern harmony and rhythmic freedom with good 
old-fashioned counterpoint : 



The Nightingale and the Rose Watts 

While she tri - umphs T wax - mg frail, 

Fad- ing 

e - - vcn while she glows- 


Copyright, 1922, by 0. Schirmrr, Ir.'. 

A song of very different type is Intrcat Me Not to Leave Thee 
(text from the book of Ruth). Here we find the note of pathos, 
not often struck in Watts' songs. The tenderness of "or to 
return from following after thee" is very genuine; 

1900-1930 (Continued) 


- m/ 


Intreat me not to leave thee Watts 

or to re -turn from fol-low-ing af -lor thee;. 

pace piu 
a tempo 

Copyright, 1923, by Q. Schirmct, Inc. 

and the strange, half-barbaric march immediately following, set 
against the broadest kind of sustained phrase in the voice-part, 
is effective and original. The declamation is notable for its 
breadth and dignity, giving a distinctly heroic touch to the song 
as a whole. Aside from these two songs of larger calibre, 
Watts' later songs have all been of a more intimate, subjective 
type than his earlier works ; of compact structure for the most 
part, and with skilfully written and easy-flowing counterpoint, 
imitative and otherwise, as in Only a Cry (Sara Teasdale) and 
Only and Forever (William Ernest Henley), both 1923, with 
the deliberate longbreathed phrases so characteristic of his later 
songs. As we note the increasingly rich scoring in all these 
songs, we can but regret the lack of originality and freedom 
in the construction of his melodies. If his melodic invention 
were equal to his skill in harmonization and general all-round 
craftsmanship, his songs would rank very high indeed. Perhaps 
as free from this fault as any of these later songs is the tender, 
meditative Transformation (Jessie B. Rittenhouse) , 1922, but 



even here a most conventional cadence in the voice-part but 
seems to emphasize this criticism. Bring Her Again to Me 
(Henley), 1923, is notable for a very interestingly developed 
and novel pictorial touch at the words "Over the western sea," 
where various superimposed octaves in the bass, sustained by 
means of the pedal and so blending the one into another, give a 
unique feeling of watery depth ; 

Brinp Her Ajjain to Me Watts 


O - \CT thi 1 \vcst - cm sca-_ 

Copyright, 1928, by G. Schirmrr, Inc. 

1900-1930 (Continued) 


and Wild Tears (Louise Imogen Guiney), 1923, is distinguished 
for a weird kind of cadenza, recurring in the voice-part with 
very telling effect ; the closing cadence is deeply felt and of great 




Wild Tears Watts 

O, the wild, wild tears fall, 



Copyright, 1923, by G. Schinner, Inc. 

Let it be Forgotten (Sara Teasdale), 1923, although having 
passages of great beauty, is on the whole less original in its con- 
struction, while A White Rose (John Boyle O'Reilly), 1923, 
shows an entirely different type of technique, its score consisting 
for the most part of delicate arabesque figures admirably 
adapted to the piano, and enwreathing the melody as a rose is 
embowered in its own leafage. It is one of Watts' most delight- 
fully lyric songs, and shows also the various earmarks of his 
particular style. 

Of Three Songs for Low Voice (1924), two, Song is so Old 
(Herman Hagedorn) and Dark H ills (Edwin Arlington Robin- 
son) are conspicuously successful examples of his growing tend- 
ency toward the more intimate, atmospheric type of song; and 
while suffering no diminution in the richness of their harmonic 
background, show a distinct gain in melodic freedom and origin- 
ality of treatment. The third member of this group, Miniver 
Cheevy (also Edwin Arlington Robinson), is as cleverly whim- 
sical as its text ! 

The more I have studied Watts' individuality as expressed 
in his songs, the more I am impressed with the thought of 

1900-1930 (Continued) 197 

his Americanism. There is first of all the forthrightness, the 
open and aboveboard genuineness, the directness of approach, 
the willingness to make use of anything which comes to hand, 
the personal independence which leads him to employ certain 
effects whether they happen to be in the mode or not all this, 
I feel sure, is easily recognizable as belonging to our national 
temperament. On the other hand, the absence of any tendency 
toward mysticism, reluctance to dwell very much on the emo- 
tional element, avoidance of the sentimental or the slightest hint 
of the lachrymose that is Wintter Watts and that, I am con- 
fident, is American. 

Surely, 1912 was a memorable year in American Song, for 
during this year appeared John Alden Carpenter's first pub- 
lished songs, namely, Eight Songs for a Medium Voice and the 
Four Poems by Paul Verlaine, with yet another setting of a 
Verlaine text, Where the Misty Shadows Glide. It is much to 
be doubted if any other year has brought forth quite so rich a 
fruitage. They are to be envied who first saw these songs fresh 
from the press, for there is no question that with them was 
ushered in a new era in American song literature. Here spoke 
a new voice, permeated with French influence, to be sure, but yet 
thoroughly individual and with something definite to say, to- 
gether with great skill in the saying of it. Think of these 
thirteen songs with not a single weak one among them ! It is true 
that Carpenter published two other songs this same year, but 
they are evidently much earlier, for while they are not without 
a certain excellence May, the Maiden (Sidney Lanier) has 
much to commend it still they seem to lack every evidence of 
that striking personality so apparent in all the other songs. 
But among these thirteen under review there is not one unworthy 
song, and they exhibit great versatility in technique and mood 
expression. In 1913 these were followed by Four Songs for a 
Medium Voice, in 1914, by Gitanjali (Tagore), in 1915, two de- 


tached songs, in 1916, Water Colors (from the Chinese), then 
various scattered songs; and in 1921, Two Night Songs (Sieg- 
fried Sassoon), in 1927, Four Negro Songs, in 1930, a Song for 
Medium Voice, Young Man, Chieftain. So that in the five years, 
from 1912 to 1916 inclusive, there appeared altogether thirty- 
one songs a remarkable record when we consider their great 
value and varied content. More than any other American song- 
composer he seems to have sprung forth fully equipped, to have 
been sure of himself at the very outset. So that in justice to 
Carpenter one must begin his study with the first published songs. 
If we start with his Eight Songs, we find in the first one The 
Green River (Lord Alfred Douglas) a fine instance of his sure 
iHall inHHThat goes to make up song technique : a keen harmonic 
sense, exceedingly plastic and capable of being molded with the 
utmost freedom; charming bits of melody, fashioned with the 
greatest refinement of line and content; invariable correspond- 
ence of text with its embodying music and whatever else you 
will, for it is all there! What poetry lies in the suggestion of 
the "winding path" by means of these sinuous chromatic har- 
monies, the glints of melody and the harp-like figures suggestive 
of the unheard music, the expressive recitative at the words 
"And all the unravished silence belong to some sweet singer 
lost or unrevealed," passing out in harmonics fittingly vague 
and indeterminate; 

(84) The Green River Carpenter 


1900-1930 (Continued) 




j ) y y 


sing- cr_ 



rL tt ffii t 

^t \ v 

* k 

>st, or un-ro 


J II f 


1 ^ 


^ jl-% 

H d^ 1 


Cop>nght, lvli, by G. Schirmcr, Inc. 

tlic longing of "Oh, may I awake from this uneasy night," where 
the color of the harmonic background, the very intervals of the 
vocal phrase, the figuration of the accompaniment, all tend to 
emphasize just the right mood; and all this bringing us to the 
climacteric suggestion of the "music manifold," with its long 
melodic line and broad harmonization. The close is exquisite 
with its bit of whole-tone color leading into "or else delight, that 
is as wide-eyed as a marigold." With this closing phrase, how- 
ever, I have never been able to reconcile the cloying harmonies 
in the accompaniment. The melodic line is perfect, but the 
harmonization has always seemed to me to be appropriate to 
the richest orchid anything rather than a wide-eyed marigold ! 
But that is a negligible defect, in the midst of so much that is 
supremely good. 



I have gone into this song with a fair amount of detail, for it is 
so entirely characteristic of Carpenter's method of procedure 
throughout all his songs. He may not think of himself as be- 
longing to the psychological or "panoramic" school of song- 
writers but be that as it may, we have no composer more expert 

( 85 ) Piu animate 

The Green River Carpenter 


To find some voice of 

1900-1930 (Continued) 


Copyright, 1W12, by G. Schirmer, Inc. 

at fitting the tone to the word than he ; and herein lies much of his 
strength as a composer of songs. 

The Green River Carpenter 
(86) Tempol _ 

I II 'II I 1 11 1 1 

ri\ ^ 


that swoons on sleep, or else de - - light That is as 



wide-eyed as a ma- ri- gold 

L.H. L.H. 

f I f 

Copyright, 1912, by O. Schiraer, Inc. 



Although in general anything in song that borders on the 
humorous is my own personal pet aversion, I must admit a cer- 
tain liking for Don't Cedre, in which Carpenter has set William 
Barnes' DorSUlMlhre dialect verses with really remarkable skill. 
The voice-part runs on in characteristically monotonous mono- 
logue fashion, while the piano score abounds in the most fascinat- 
ing double rhythms and the merriest counterpoint imaginable, 
and the harmonization, although appropriately simple, is any- 
thing but commonplace. If there must be humorous songs, or 
those bordering thereon, may they all be graced with the art of 
Don't Ceare. 

Looking-Glass River (Robert Louis Stevenson) is rich in 
carillon effects of great attractiveness, while Go, Lovely Rose 
(Edmund Waller) is one of the most ingratiating songs of the 
group. I imagine Wintter Watts would almost envy Carpen- 
ter's clever manipulation of his subdominant harmony at the 
words "How sweet and fair she seems to be." 

G'>, Lovely Ro-,e Carpenter 

(1 F('IHfH) 

Copyright. l!<12, by C S^.rmrr Jrc 

The middle section with its weirdly conceived harmonica cut into 
solid blocks, as it were, might have come from Cyril Scott. The 
two Blake poems, Little^ Fly < and A Cradle-Song, receive sym- 

1900-1930 (Continued) 


pathetic treatment, the former particularly attractive by reason 
of its filmy, unsubstantial harmonization, the latter for its sim- 
plicity and artistic restraint a model for this much abused type 
of song. 

In the first of his four Verlaine songs, Chanson d'Automne, 
we find another example of that meditative type of song appar- 
ently so dear to his heart. Here, as so many times, we find 
flowering out of the very midst of a quiet, neutral background 
some broad, expressive melodic phrase in the piano-part, as at 
the words "Tout suffocant et bleme," 

Chanson d'Automne Carpenter 




J4 1 *"' 


And breath-lcsa pain Is mine, 
Ton/ si i/ fo- cant er bit - me 

while time Is creep-ing, 
quand son-ne I'heu- re t 

^ .J- Jl.J 



^fcfjrtf^- i 


Opyr.jbt, |U, by 0. Schirner, Inc. 

vitalizing it much as the introduction of the human figure serves 
to give life to the painted landscape. Le del is an exceptionally 
perfect bit of atmospheric writing, the antiphonal effects and 
suggestions of bell tones being managed with rare skill, while at 
the close there emerges from the shadows one of those typical 
Carpentercse glints of melody, bringing us at once from the 
world of unrealities into that of human experience. In Dansons 
la gigue we find again Carpenter's dexterity in employing si- 
multaneously two different rhythmical schemes, this time waltz 
rhythms in both $ and $ time. // pleure dans man coeur 
is a dull grey montone, effective because of its very monotony. 
Where tht Misty Shadows Glide, one of his loveliest Verlaine 
settings, shows the naturalness with which Carpenter's melodies 



develop. Could anything be less studied or artificial than the 
evolution and development of the initial melody in this song? 

Slowly and in pensive mood 

fuh l : t 1-= 1 1 1 1 

^M5 ! 1 .J J J - 
When the mist-y 
Cal- mes dans le 

' l * ^ ~ ' 1 
^ 1 i 1 1 Jo 1 fn IJ ID 

o ' 

shad-ows glide, 
dp - mi -jour 

-4 4- 

) ^-f ] j -" "j j -r~~] ^j 

] -J J 

^ = 1 

At the tran-quil end of day, Then let the soul of 

qiie les bran-che* haii - tes font. pc - ne- Irons b\fn 

6 1 L ~r i ^ ~r r^ i^~ * > 

Xf^p ij g p H a P b ^ g 

1 ,.1 l^j ^ T7M-M ^^ - ^ 

si- lence come, And in our love a 

no- ire a - mour df t.r si- IH-CP fro 



i j. '' 

V | ^^ ^ "! 

L y | . 6) J J 1 r j 6> 

^M Jt W BI ^ rJii 

Copyright, 1912, by Oliver Duton 

1900-1930 (Continued) 205 

It is this unconscious logic in his musical thinking that so often 
gives Carpenter's songs their sense of spontaneity and inevitable- 

ftft \ . Les Silhouettes Carpenter 

w Largo mistico 

is flecked with bars of 

Ji Lf I jili bS l; g I Ll. 

gray, The dull dead wind is out of tune, 

Copyright, Itf 13, by Schirmer, Inc. 


In the four songs published in 1913 we find further evidence 
of this logical development, this inevitability. Directly in the 
first song, Les Silhouettes (Oscar Wilde), the germ of the whole 
work, as far as its accompanimental background is concerned, 
appears at once: a group of three chords, rugged three-note 
chords, two of the three built up of superimposed fourths, in 
dotted rhythm, two longer chords separated by the shorter ; and 
this motif, slight as it is, dominates the entire song. And even 
though at times it may seem to have entirely disappeared, its 
rhythm at least is present to the very end. It is a striking 
instance of the economy of means to which, when he wishes, 
Carpenter is able to confine himself; and naturally the song is 
unified thercbv as would scarcelv be possible in any other way. 
Her Voice (also Oscar Wilde) is one of Carpenter's most fluent 
and facile songs, although the voice-part maintains its long, 
deliberate line. It may be questioned, perhaps, whether a some- 
what more dramatic treatment of the voice in this instance 
would not have still further heightened the emotional value of 
the song. To One Unkn&tcn (Helen Dudley) contains one of 
those passages of rich sonority in which Carpenter is so success- 
ful. It occurs at the words "I have kissed the shining feet 
of Twilight, loverwise, opened the gates of Dawn." Effec- 
tive as it is, it cannot be said to be in any way strikingly orig- 
inal either in its means or manner, and in this way differs from 
the tremendous climax in Light, My Light, soon to be con- 
sidered. But in its own way it is of exceeding dramatic value 
and again exemplifies Carpenter's admirable economy of means, 
the entire passage of six very full measures being built up upon 
only three major chords, but enriched by a wealth of chro- 
matic octaves, wide-flung arpeggios and the like. Fog Wraiths 
(Mildred Howclls) is an imaginative and suggestive treatment 
of its text. 

1900-1930 (Continued) 201 

TU b a t To one unknown Carpenter 

Copyright, 1918, by O. Schirmer 



When we reach Gitanjnli, a setting of various Tagore texts, 
we come to one of Carpenter's most important works. I sus- 
pect that no one of all the myriad interpreters of Tagore has 
more truly caught his spirit. At any rate these songs are dis- 
tinctive, original, not to be surpassed among the best American 
songs. The rich texture of When I bring you coloured toys, 
the solemnity of On the day when death will knock at thy door 9 
the tenderness of The sleep that flits on baby's eyes, the poesy 
of I am like a remnant of a cloud of Autumn with its finely de- 
veloped climax at "paint it with colors, gild it with gold, float 
it on the wanton winds and spread it in varied wonders" 




Gitanjali Carpenter 
f crrsc. 

and spread it in va-ncd 

float, it on the wan -ton winds, 

1900-1930 (Continued) 

a tempo 

Copyright, 1914, by G. Schirmer, Inc. 

all these serve really as but preliminary to the supreme achieve- 
ment of the last two songs, On the Seashore of Endless Worlds, 
and Light, my Light. In the first of these Carpenter has suc- 
ceeded in transmuting the fragility and transparent beauty of 
the child-spirit into tones, as I remember it to have been done 
only in Pierne's Children's Crusade. Could anything be more 
felicitous than the setting of the passage beginning "while 
children gather pebbles and scatter them again?" 




Gitanjali Carpenter 

1 * h K n is 











* ^ n H 


I itt\ f\ 

"~~"~ V 



^ *p. 



n r r r 



1 . rail 


) citewpo 


4 *- 

peb - bles. 

and scat-tcr them a - 

The seek not for hid - den 

treas-ures,_ thcv know not how to cast nets.. 

Copyright, 1914, by Q. Schinner, Inc. 

Throughout the song the simplicity^ the means employed is 
in remarkable contrast with the effect attained. In vividly con- 
trasting mood is the brilliant paean of praise to Light, 
Here is no slender threadlike melodic line, but great bursts of 
golden tone like the full-throated voice of the orchestra. It is 

no song in the true sense of the word, but a flaming forth of 
elemental ecstasy. I know of nothing like it. It is written for 
no mortal voice. Perhaps archangelic voices might cope with 
its long-drawn trumpet-like phrases, but no earthly voice should 
attempt these soaring flights ! Passing by The Day is No More 
(also Tagorc), with its wealth of oriental mysticism, and the 
imaginative setting of W. B. Yeats' The Player-Queen, we come 
to Water Colors, a cycle of Chinese tone-poems, which with 
Gitanjali probably represents Carpenter's work at its very best. 
Here is the same clever interpretation of the text, the invariable 
refinement of style it seems that Carpenter has forgotten (if 
he ever knew!) how to write a commonplace phrase. Even his 
title is chosen with rare skill, for "water colors" is just what they 
arc there is none of the gorgcousness characterizing so many 
of the songs in Gitanjali (Light, my Light was painted in oils 
and with broad brushwork if ever a song were), but here every- 
thing is done with the utmost delicacy and with all the tints 
and half-tints so characteristic of this particular medium. If 
there be no thrills, there is at least constant charm. The Oda- 
lisque and To a Young Gentleman could there be anything 
more graceful than the one, or more whimsically human than the 
other? Or was there ever a closing cadence more weirdly fas- 
cinating than that of On a Screen^(sec Ex. 94?) ? 

Of his more important songs there remain still to be men- 
tioned the two settings of verses by Siegfried Sassoon, Slumber- 
Song and Serenade, the Four Negro Songs (Langston Hughes) 
and Young Man Chieftain (Mary Austin) . Slumber-Song, while 
giving many glimpses of Carpenter's customary ability, seems to 
lack his usual sense of cohesion and unity ; it sounds diffuse, loose- 
jointed. The Serenade, on the other hand, is closely knit, unified 
throughout. It is full of perverse rhythms, its mood is rather dis- 
traught, but it is a powerful song, well put together, with all of 
Carpenter's facility in craftsmanship. In the Four Negro Songs : 



Tempo I p 

Water -colors Carpenter 

Copyright, 1916, by G. Schirmer, Inc. 


your brorcn feet, honey, The Cry in" Blues, Jazz-Boys and 
Soothin 9 Song, Carpenter shows that jazz rhythms may be 
used with artistic effect and once again gives proof that what- 
ever he turns his hand to gains distinction thereby. Here are 
various moods presented, each with its appropriate atmosphere. 
Extraordinarily impressive in its rugged strength is the Indian 
Prayer, Young Man Chieftain. We feel at once the innate man- 
liness of this Indian youth, and the music with all its wild un- 
couthness breathes a serious dignity most appealing. Debussy 
could scarcely have bettered the phrase, "Lord of the small rain." 
(Nature again !) It is a powerful song, original, effective. 

To sum up, I find in Carpenter, to a greater extent than 
in the case of any other American song-writer, the meditative 

1900-1930 (Continued) 213 

spirit, the love of expressing the genius of nature, the out-of- 
doors, in its quieter aspects and in its influence upon human 
experience. We need but recall Where the Misty Shadows 
Glide, Chanson d 9 Automne, Le del, II pleure dans mon coeur, 
The Green River, Looting-Glass River, The Cock shall Crow, 
Les Silhouettes, Fog Wraiths, On the Seashore of Endless 
Worlds, Light, my Light, The Day is No More, Water Colors 
and Slumber-Song. Surely no other among our composers has 
been so drawn in this direction. This sympathetic reaction to 
the moods of nature has been, perhaps, my chief point in feeling 
a certain non-Americanism in Carpenter's work. Any one who 
knows this inborn love of the out-of-doors in its more subjective 
moods, so characteristic of many peoples of the earth, and so un- 
characteristic of our own, to whom the out-of-doors means pure 
objectivity an auto ride or a baseball game will understand 
what I mean. We may acquire this sincere love of nature and 
it is to be hoped that most of us do, but it is a matter not lightly 
to be taken for granted. That Carpenter has felt this so keenly, 
serves at once to set him aside from most of his colleagues. To 
my mind, songs of this type are the most beautiful and compan- 
ionable of all types, but not to every composer is it given to write 
them worthily. To Brahms it was given in perhaps the fullest 
measure ever granted, and we may well congratulate ourselves 
that in Carpenter we find one so worthily following where he led. 
Then, too, the aristocratic elegance of his style, oversophisti- 
cated it may be at times (but seldom) that is non-American; 
as is his perfection of finish and absolute freedom from medio- 
crity. Carpenter's meticulous care in choosing his texts is a case 
in point. He seemed never to make a mistake in this regard. 
With even Bainbridge Crist setting No Limit (Godfrey Mon- 
tague Lcbhar) and Wintter Watts' Locations (Tom Hall), to 
say nothing of A. Walter Kramer's The Great Awakening 
(Gordon Johnstone) , we can appreciate what this means ! 


1900-1930 (CONTINUED) 
Alice Barnett, A. Walter Kramer 

A MOTHER song-writer to whom this appeal of nature in 
j[~\. her various moods has been only less powerful, and whose 
reaction toward it has been embodied in many exceedingly attrac- 
tive songs, is Alice Barnett. It is not for nothing that among 
her very first published titles (in 1908) appear Evening and At 
Twilight, nor that her only song to tin original text begins 
"Hush of twilight, dew on the rose." From 1909 to 1916 there 
were no published songs, but in the latter year appeared Sere- 
nade (Clinton Scollard), with which began her real career as a 
song-composer. In none of her later songs has she surpassed this 
in delicacy and grace. It is a strictly feminine song, in the best 
sense of the word, in its shimmering harplike figures, in the 
smoothness of its harmonization, in the blend of one mellow 
dissonance into another; and even its one passionate climax is 
expressed with the reserve of a Debussy rather than the virile 
abandon of a Richard Strauss. And this is exactly as it should 
be, to interpret its text. It is in precisely this genre that Miss 
Barnett has best expressed her own individuality heroics are 
not so much in her line. And yet one hesitates to say this, re- 
calling her very successful interpretation of Robert Browning's 
In a Gondola, for Browning was anything but feminine in his 
poetic style and Miss Barnett has not only been able worthily 
to interpret these remarkable verses, but to add to them a beauty 
of her own. Still, it is to this mood of tranquil buoyancy that 
she turns again and again. 


1900-1930 (Continued) 215 

In 1918 appeared three songs, of which Nightingale Lane 
(William Sharp) is the most noteworthy. This is done with the 
deftest possible touch and is one of her most individual songs. 
In 1919 she published several songs, among them Tryst (Clinton 
Scollard) and Mood (original text), both characterized by the 
same feminine charm as the Serenade; also The Cool of Night 
(Egmont H. Arens), a song of similar style, but somehow with 
a heavier touch and not showing the spontaneity of its fellows. 

In 1919 also appeared Miss Barnett's most important pub- 
lished work, the above-mentioned cycle of eight songs comprising 
Browning's In a Gondola. Here Miss Barnett shows a vigor of 
style, a feeling for sonority of tone and a richness of scoring, 
as well as an ability to deal with a dramatic situation quite un- 
suspected from her earlier songs. Almost the best of the entire 
cycle is the opening Serenade, of splendid sweep and fervor; 
followed by the Boat Song, in which both the gentle motion of 
the boat and the sardonic humor of Browning's lines are cleverly 
expressed. TJic Moth's Kiss First is a bit of skilful character- 
ization, while What arc we two is notable for its broadly sonor- 
ous refrain "Scatter the vision forever," and for the admirable 
suggestion of "The sprite of a star" in the accompaniment, which 
could scarcely be surpassed in delicacy and finesse (see Ex. 95). 
While perhaps best of them all in its mood painting is He muses 
drifting. Dip your arm o'er the boatside and Tomorrow, if 
a harpstring, say interestingly continue the narrative, which 
reaches its dramatic culmination in It was ordained to be so, 
sweet. It can be questioned whether Miss Barnett was quite 
able to rise to the sudden denouement of the stabbing of the 
lover, though her roughly harmonized and rhythmed whole-tone 
phrase at the very beginning of the scene is excellent (see Ex. 96) . 
With the entrance of the voice-part her hand is once more sure, 
and the pathos and tenderness of the text is finely realized. The 
thematic reminiscences of the opening Serenade are as effective 



What are we Two? Barnett 

Seal - ter the vi - sion for - ev - er! And 


now, As of olo% I am I, thou art 

1900-1930 (Continued) 


poco a /oco ammando 

gain, what we are? The sprite pf 

poco a poco animando 

lure thee a - bove whe 

where the 

( 96 ) It was ordained to be so, Barnett 

He is surprised and stabbed^ 


psychologically as they are musically attractive. I know of few 
modern song-cycles containing more beautiful music. 

Of the Three Love Songs published in 1921, Days that come 
and go (John Vance Cheney) shows a particularly rich har- 
monic background with interestingly managed counterpoint in 
the piano score. Two Even-Songs were issued in the same year 
Mother Moon (Amelia Burr), a child-song of great attrac- 
tiveness, and To-night, a setting of Sara Teasdale's familiar 
lines in Miss Barnett's peculiarly fluent style. Among several 
songs in 1923, Agamede's Song is perhaps the most notable by 
reason of its subtle harmonic scheme. 

I think, however, that Miss Barnett has never written any- 
thing more imaginative than Chanson of the Bells of Oseney 
(Cale Young Rice), 1924. The skill with which she has in- 
dividualized each of the bells in turn, Haut-Clere, Doucement, 
Austyn, John, Gabriel, Marie, is quite beyond praise; and all 
with true carillon effect. There is no monotony, and yet through 
the entire song the air of mysticism is carefully preserved. It 
never falls to earth, but is kept at all times in an atmosphere 
charged with the clangor of the bells a remarkably unified and 
interesting song. 

(97) Chanson of the Bells of Oseney Barnett 
^ Placidamentc 

!r =1 
*,,. E f t t | 

i , E g f 

^H F f F f 

"J i i } 1_ 

* P p p- 

* U i 


*w> /'terf. 

1900-1930 (Continued) 



The bells of O- 

. Haut-clere,Douce-ment,Aus-tyn, 


. t .. 

j j jijij 


Chant sweet -ly ev-'ry day, 

And sad - ly, for our sin. 


ft T J J J > 

The bells of 

M t J j =\ 

- se- n 



John, Ga-bri- el, Ma-ri 

-* fcrJ 1 1- 


4M 3 j ; 

t; J- 

i'- j \. F t 


? b'3 

J F ' 




Copyright, 1944, by O. Schirmer, Inc. 

Indeed, the entire group of songs published in 1924 is distinc- 
tive and quite different in style from all her earlier published 
work. The texts she has chosen are for the most part exotic in 
type and hence naturally call for a totally different idiom, and 
she has shown quite unusual mastery of her new mode of speech. 



Unlike so much of this sort of writing, there is nothing forced, 
nothing which smacks of exaggeration or caricature. Miss 
Barnett is apparently as much at home here, and speaks with 
as much sincerity of feeling, as in any of her earlier songs. 
Probably the most extreme example of this type is As I came 
down from Lebanon (Clinton Scollard). This song lacks the 
feeling of unity so characteristic of the other songs of this 
group, but has its interesting moments. A Caravan from China 
comes (Richard Le Gallienne) is attractive throughout, and the 
feeling of reverence and awe at the words "Her face is from 
another land" is most impressively realized in the music. 


A Caravao from China Comes Barnett 

Her face is from an - olh-er land, I 


ten. ? ^ 

sotto voce 

think she is no mor - tal maid, Her beau-ty, like some 


1900-1930 (Continued) 

Copyright, 1924, by Q. Schirmer, Inc. 

Singing Girl of Shan (F. M.) is engaging in its pure, 
transparent melody, quite typical of Miss Barnett's ability to 
write simply, fluently, but with no sign of shallowness. On a 
Moonlit River (again the unknown F. M.) has an ingenious 
technical motif all its own, which, at the phrase "the gloom is 
stirred with silver mist of fireflies glowing," makes an effect alto- 
gether delightful. 

On a Moonlit River Barnett 

It I- 1 [_.!< 

V ~ i ^* * : 

- et - ness, and, deep be -low, the 


gloom Is stirr'dwith sil-ver mist of fire - flies. 

i i I 




, 1924, by Compofters* Music Corporation 

The use of a bit of strict canon in the midst of modern environ- 
ment greatly enhances the interest of The Time of Saffron Moons 

Music, When Soft Voices Die (Shelley), 1926, shows breadth 
of line and sustained dignity of style. 

There seems no question that without Miss Barnett's gra- 
cious femininity, not only would an individual note of very 
great charm remain unsounded, but our native song would be 
much the poorer thereby. 

It is interesting to note that several of our best known song- 
writers began writing and publishing early in life. For in- 

1900-1930 (Continued) 



The Time of Saffron Moons Barnett 


clos es." 




a tempo 




il J 



"> ^ :^r- 

time of saf-fron moons, Be - lov-ed, comes a - gain 

ArfTl !: 1&T3 











Birds in the dusk wak 

en to 




Copyright , 1924 ( by Composers' liuiic Corpontion. 

stance, Miss Barnett, after publishing two groups of songs 
(seven in all) in 1908-09, allowed eight years to pass with the 


issuing of only one song, and that near the end of this period ; 
since which time, however, she has composed and published with 
approximate regularity. Wintter Watts was very prolific in 
his earlier years, and in a like period of eight years issued some 
twenty songs. A. Walter Kramer belongs also to this same 
group and from the year of his first published songs has seldom 
allowed a year to pass without new issues. In all these cases the 
earlier songs are naturally of interest only in what they suggest 
of that which is to come ; and Miss Barnett seems to have chosen 
the better part when she elected to wait for further publishing 
until her art had ripened. Among all whom we have so far con- 
sidered, however, it is John Alden Carpenter who seems to have 
acted with the greatest wisdom. He published nothing until in 
his thirties, and the result is that there is scarcely a song in his 
entire output we would discard. Perhaps it is not quite so 
direct a case of cause and effect as that, but it would almost 
seem so. At any rate, in the case of Kramer, as of Watts, there 
are about a score of songs that we can very comfortably pass over. 
We said of Watts that his immature songs showed a certain 
theatricality of effect ; with Kramer this immaturity shows itself 
either in close imitation of the German type of song, with very 
unoriginal themes and manner of treatment, or a disjointed, dif- 
fuse, recitative sort of song with decided French atmosphere. 
Kramer has always followed impartially these two leadings, and 
some exceedingly interesting songs have resulted from this two- 
fold development, more particularly on the French side; while 
the German song, Invocation (Gebct) , 1922, poem by Otto Julius 
Bierbaum, is also a truly admirable song. It shows the influence 
of Richard Strauss at its best, and with the exception of its 
rather commonplace ending has worked out excellently well. The 
entrance of the voice-part is managed with the real Straussian 
skill, and the syncopated opening of the second phrase is of his 
very spirit ; 


1900-1930 (Continued) 225 

Invocation Kramer 


Lov- ed Night! On mount and mead- ow 

Lie - be Nacktl auf Berg uruf Wie - sr 


Rest thou, si-lent corn-fort- er. 

duj stil-U Tros-ter- in. 

On the hem of thy broad pit - low 

AndemSau-mt dfi - nes Man-telt 



4^''' r r J ^ i r 

*^ My de- sires I brini 

w rit 

dy de- sires 1 bring in prayV. 

Leg 1 ich all mein Wunsch - en hin. 

L.H. I jriu rit 


Y richly^ 



Copyright, 1922, by Oliver Ditson Company , 



so also are the artistically handled counter-melodies scattered 
throughout the song. In contrast to his earlier songs, these 
melodies are individual and attractive as at "Loved Night, 
upon thy bosom," and the brief but lovely imitative effect at the 
words "Mother of all piety." 

Invocation Kramer 

Moth - er of all pi 

Mitt - tcr_ al - li'r From 

Of an entirely different type, but still showing Teuton influ- 
ence, is The Faltering Dusk (Louis Untermeyer), 1919. Here 
Kramer has caught the very spirit of the German folk-song, but 
so illumined it with flashes of fancy that not only is it one of his 
most sincere songs, but one of the most attractive as well. The 
dreamy interlude "like a dance memory" is both psychologically 
and musically interesting. 

The Faltering Du ,k Kramer 


^TTJce a dance mrmuiy~ 




Copyright, 1919, by Oliver Ditson Company 

1900-1930 (Continued) 227 

Predominantly but not exclusively of German type is The 
Crystal Gazer (John Alan Haughton), 1921. Here Kramer 
has hit upon a formal scheme of great attractiveness, a modern- 
ized and flexible form, suggesting the classical recitative and aria. 
Kramer's fondness for quasi-recitative effects has often led him 
into a rambling diff useness which seems almost formless, but here 
the close-knit texture of the second section of the song has saved 
him from this error. Like Watts, Kramer is often far from ori- 
ginal in his material, but, also like Watts, he often obtains effects 
of great beauty ; so that in this song, along with certain measures 
so far from original or in any way distinguished that they sound 
almost banal, we get such really impressive harmonic progres- 
sions as at the words "In other days," and the admirable cadence 
"Show me of all the one most dear" (see Ex. 104). Kramer's 
songs show great skill in the development of his accompany- 
ing melodies, of which the long melodic line in the piano score 
throughout the first page of the G flat section is a notable ex- 
ample. If we compare this with the similar obbligato in the 
earlier song, The Last Hour (after a poem by Jessie Christian 
Brown), 1914, we find that while the melodies themselves are 
perhaps not particularly dissimilar or of unequal value, very 
great advancement is shown in the setting of the later melody ; 
there is evidence of a far less objective treatment so much so 
that the other seems fairly bald in comparison. In the Two 
Lieder (1923) we find the first, Pleading (Hermann Hesse), 
a typical lied in form and style (though a rather ineffective 
one), but Unto all Things Voice is Given (Casar Flaischlen) 
is no lied, either in form or spirit rather a big concert aria, sug- 
gesting full orchestra in every measure. The apostrophe to the 
sea is excellently handled, but one begins to fear that, if he is not 
careful, Kramer's evident fondness for imposing effect may lead 
him into mere bigness without depth. 

Before we turn to the songs which show direct and unmistak- 
able French influence, let us note in passing the attractively 



simple ttnd appropriate setting of Campion's well-known There 
is a Garden in Her Face (1914) and the buoyancy and rhyth- 
mic effectiveness with which Kramer has invested Sara Teas- 
dale's equally popular Joy (1917) both of them earlier songs. 


i moltorit 

The Crystal Gazer Kramer 

else, show me of all, the One Most Dear! 

molio rit 

mp with lyric color 






Then sud-den-ly a- cross the 

1900-1930 (Continued) 

Copyright, 1921, bv Oliver Ditson Company 

Any conscientious accompanist, however, will resent the closing 
cadence of the latter song (Joy), where he is expected to take a 
chord ffff, and hold it for two measures with a constant cres- 
cendo! One does not relish being asked to accomplish the im- 

Of the French songs (as I have called them), perhaps none 
is finer than Swans (1917), another Sara Teasdale text. Here 
Kramer has made excellent use of his chosen medium: there 
is no diff useness the weave is close and firm ; there is no form- 
lessness the recurrence of the phrase "We watch the swans," 
with its identical melody, gives a sense of a momentary return 
to what has gone before, so essential to any formal success ; there 
is no harmonic restlessness the frequent prolonging of a single 
harmony through more than one measure giving a sense of rest- 
ful poise, attractive in itself and interesting as suggesting the 
mood of night with its quiet calm. Then too, as we should ex- 
pect, there is the exquisitely molded obbligato at the words 
"How still you are your gaze is on my face." All in all a well- 
nigh perfect song of its type, one in which we feel no desire to 
alter a single note anywhere. How can one pay higher tribute ! 
(See Ex. 105). 

Not so unified, but still more imaginative, is / have seen 
Dawn (1922). John Masefield's verses give ample opportunity 



for descriptive touches in the music, and the composer has writ- 
ten up to them with great skill. So deftly is it all done, how- 
ever, that one is scarcely conscious of the process ; we get only 
the intensified effect of the text, its lights and shadows only 
deepened thereby, but nothing altered. Could anything be more 
delightful than that fleeting suggestion of "the slow old tunes 
of Spain," or the dainty tripping steps of "the Lady April 
bringing the daffodils?" while "the soft warm April rain" has 
inspired one of Kramer's most ingratiating melodic moments, 


Swans Kramer 

1900-1930 (Continued) 


Copyright, 1917, by G. Ricordi A Co., Inc. 

and "the old chant of the sea" is a very breath of salt sea air. 
Indeed, this almost programmatic portion of the song serves 
once more as a sort of recitative introduction to the main part 
of the song, whose breadth of melodic line and sustained har- 
monic background vividly suggest as did The Crystal Gazer, 
above the old-time aria. Very successfully it is all worked 
out, with its reintroduction of the Lady April motif at the end, 
except for the fact that this broadly conceived air must be so 
unnecessarily interrupted by such fragmentary treatment of the 
phrases "and her voice, and her hair." Surely it was not essen- 
tial that the piano should answer each of these phrases, syllable 
for syllable. It is the only structural defect in an otherwise 
admirable song (see Ex. 106). 

Seemingly only less successful than these two songs, and in 
fact strikingly similar in style to Swans, is Now like a Lantern 
(Alice Raphael), 1919. Here is found the same technique, the 
same atmosphere. Of shorter, more compact songs of this same 
type, there should be mentioned the very sincere and sympathetic 
interpretation of Arthur Symons' Tears (1917) ; of Green (D. 
H. Lawrence), 1916; the two interesting Sappho Fragments 



(1915) ; the more elaborate and dramatic setting of John Hay's 
The Stirrup Cup (1916) ; while the early Debussyish Nocturne 
(1914) shows Kramer's unfailing delight in varying tone-color 
and rich euphony. 


I Have Seen Dawn Kramer 


slow old tunes of Spain; 



m p~ - - ~i 

I have seen the La-dy A-pril bring-ing the daf-fo-dils, 



Bring -ing the spring- ing grass and the soft warm A - pnl 

1900-1930 (Continued) 

Copyright, 1922, by G. Schirmer, Inc. 

In the Sonnet Sequence, Beauty of Earth (Charles Hanson 
Towne), 1924, we see Kramer's more recent development at its 
best. The free recitative treatment of the voice, which is here 
adopted throughout the cycle, may be, and very probably is, 
most appropriate to this particular text ; and yet it is perhaps 
an open question whether the expression of four extended son- 
nets by such means, no matter how interesting the accompanying 
score, is not in very certain danger of creating a monotonous 
effect. There can be no question, however, that this sequence 
abounds in individual details of great attractiveness ; and in the 
final sonnet, Clouds, the composer has not only shown great skill 
in establishing an appropriate atmosphere, but at the words 
"Some clean, white morning I shall thus abide," he has given the 
voice a melodic phrase of great beauty and impressiveness (see 

Tracings (Bernard Raymund), and The Patriot (Brown- 
ing), both 1926, are as far apart as they well could be in their 
general style the former thin and cleanly drawn (tracings in 
very truth), the latter dramatic and colorful; the transforma- 
tion of the very effective processional theme of its introduction 
into something mournful and pathetic in the further course of 
the song being its distinguishing feature. 

That Kramer is also a sympathetic and skilful arranger of 
folk-songs is evidenced by his Swedish and Norwegian melodies ; 



nor must we fail to appreciate his telling example of what a 
sacred song should be in This is the Day the Christ was Born 
(Frederick H. Martens), 1919. Would that all writers of 
church music might emulate the dignity and simplicity of this 


Beauty of Earth Kramer 

bjdc Tp - on the 

1900-1930 (Continued) 


Copyright, 1924, by J. Fischer A Bro. 

song. The 5ongr without Words (1921) does not concern us, for 
to me, while an interesting piece of work, it is no song in any 
sense whatsoever ; and just what mental aberration was respon- 
sible for the sentimental artificialities of The Great Awakening 
(Gordon Johnstone), 1921, and Body and Soul (Harold Robe), 
1922, it is not our province to enquire. 

In Kramer then we have seen two distinct lines of develop- 
ment ; the one, the earlier established of the two, but continuing 
through the years, having to do with the manner and matter of 
the typical German song the same technique and the same con- 
tent with which Strauss, Brahms, and others have made us so 
familiar. Later came the French influence, latterly coming 
more and more to the fore and producing what are probably 
his strongest songs. Here we have seen once more depicted 
those serious moods of nature, so loved of Alice Barnett and John 
Alden Carpenter, but treated in a somewhat different manner. 
Just what may be the ultimate trend of Kramer's writing remains 
still to be seen. 

1900-1930 (CONTINUED) 
Bainbridge Crist, Charles Tomlinson Griff es 

WITH Bainbridge Crist we find a musical temperament still 
different from any to which we have so far given our at- 
tention. He is primarily attracted to that which is fanciful, un- 
real. At its best his writing is finely imaginative a touch of 
otherworldness is felt throughout much of his work. If ever "the 
light that never was on sea or land" has seemed to cast its glamour 
over any song, that song is Into a Ship Dreaming. And yet I 
have always felt a distinct objectivity in his songs. This light 
of fancy seems never actually to come from within; the song 
seems bathed in its soft effulgence, but not itself to have irradi- 
ated it. Next to his delight in this fanci fulness and unreality 
of mood, comes the joy of painting exotic pictures, where again 
imagination may have full play. How vivid is this pictorial 
imagination in Grist's case, may be clearly seen in his cycle 
Coloured Stars and other oriental scenes. 

That Crist, however, is not restricted to these shadowy half- 
lights, nor to exotic moods, we soon learn in songs such as Girl of 
the Red Mouth, which is as spirited and vigorous as any song 
we know of. But one feels the imaginative mood lurking in the 
background at all times ; it is his own individual and character- 
istic mood. 

It seems quite remarkable that his very first published song, 
To Arcady (C. A. M. Dolson), composed in 1908, should so 
unmistakably foreshadow this future development. Like Car- 
penter's first published songs, it shows a sureness of touch not 


1900-1930 (Continued) 


attained so early by the others we have been considering, and 
points to the future in no uncertain way. Indeed, this early 
song is quite captivating in its pensive, sehnsiichtig expression, 
and contrary to most early works, is worthy to rank with more 
mature efforts. It is to be doubted that Crist could even now 
better the admirably modelled final phrase of the fifth page, "As 
sweet as grow in Arcady." 


To Arcady Crist 



I found fresh ros-es in my hand 

As sweet as 

grow in AT- ca - dyl 

Copyright, 1912, by Th Bo. too Music Co. 

Here was a dissonant al shadow of great attractiveness cast long 
before / 

Of the ten songs published in 1915, April Rain (Conrad 
Aiken), a song of the greatest harmonic fluency and varied tone- 
color, is likely always to suffer more than it deserves from its 



very obvious suggestion of Grieg's With a Water-Lily. If there 
were Dreams to Sell (Thomas Lovell Beddoes) is one of the 
striking examples of that fanciful mood which we have spoken 
of as belonging so particularly to Crist. Technically it has 
many points of interest the very effective suggestion of bell 
ringing ("and the cryer rang the bell"), 

Poco piii mosso 

If there were Dreams to Sell Crist 
f motto 





would you buy?_ 


r^ : 

l, IWIi, by The Boston Munc Co. 

the exceedingly subtle harmonization throughout, and the free 
use of dissonance in the counterpoint, which in connection with 
the smoothness of the harmony serves to give a certain tang to the 
taste that is at once delightful and unique. 

The year 1916 brings us the beginnings of that happy as- 

1900-1930 (Continued) 


sociation of Grist's individual temperament with the verses of 
Walter de La Mare, which was to prove so stimulating to his 
art. He set no less than eight of de La Mare's poems slight 
poetic fancies for the most part, but ideally fitted to Crist's 
style, in their delicacy and refinement. In Mistletoe there is 
complete fusion of text and music. Crist is always skilful in 
his declamation; here, however, it is not only an outward fit- 
ting of sounds to words, but of spirit to spirit as well. Most 
interesting is his treatment of the repetition of the words "Pale- 
green, faery mistletoe" in the second stanza, for their weird 
harmonization prepares one for exactly what follows, an effec- 
tive instance of the added vividness which it is possible to im- 
part to an idea through musical as well as verbal expression. 


Mistletoe Crist 
a tempo i j 1 

"F J F 

Tired I wasj 

my headword go Nod -ding 

un - dcr (he 

a tempo 




mis- tic - toe 

(Pale- green, fair - y 
a tempo 

mis - tie - toe,) 


Cw isfertoxamente) 



^ * 





I T TI P Plf 

No foot - steps came, no voice, 

but on- ly, _ 



3k ' # S& I * *. 

Copyright, 1916, by The Boston Music C. 

Scarcely less attractive in its whimsical charm and delicacy of 
touch is The Little Bird. To Columbine (Kendall Banning) is 
distinguished for the richness and beauty of its final cadence; 

To Columbine Crist 

Molto me no mosso 
(111) pgutnto 



* tempo 




star - ry - eyed and 
a tempo 

I. ll. bj TW BMo. UiMic Go 

1900-1930 (Continued) 


here we begin to glimpse the tonal glories of such songs as Col- 
oured Stars, soon to follow. In 1917 we find more of the de La 
Mare texts, and the delightfully droll Chinese Mother Goose 
Rhymes, but it is in the following year that we reach his very 
zenith of attainment in the etherealized, spiritualized type, in 
the song that to me is the most perfect song he has ever written, 
and one of the most perfect songs I know of anywhere, Into a 
Ship Dreaming, this also to a de La Mare text. This song is 
the very apotheosis of imaginative fancy, and is of remarkable 
poetic beauty. 

This year of 1918, though not as prolific as some years, 
shows us much of Grist's very best work. You Will Not Come 
Again (Dora Sigerson Short) is a powerful song in which Crist 
interprets a mood quite unusual for him, that of deepest pathos, 
and he has succeeded admirably in establishing this mood. Again, 
in direct antithesis to this, is Come Hither (George Darley), a 
coloratura song of much buoyancy and oldtime grace ; then, still 
different, the Girl of the Red Mouth (Martin MacDermott), 
fairly bubbling over with good spirits, exuberant, ecstatic, as full 
of motion as Into a Ship Dreaming is of tranquil mysticism. 


Girl of the Red Mouth Crist 
1 molto rit. 

of the blue eye, love me! 

molto rit. 



Copyright, 1918, by Carl Fischer, Inc. N Y 

Note the irresistible rhythmic sweep and superb climax at the 
words "Girl of the blue eye, love me." One can but admire the 
skilfully managed transition to pathetic appeal at its close. 
The year 1919 brings us only de La Mare's The Old Soldier, in 
which occurs one of Grist's most suave and lovely melodic pas- 
sages, beginning with the words "Twas sweet and fresh with 
buds of May" ; the next year appeared Drolleries from an Ori- 
^ntol Doll's House* continuing the odd humor of the Chinese 
Mother Goose Rhymes, and two exceedingly poetic settings of 
texts by Conrad Aiken, The Dark King's Daughter and En- 
chantment, songs differing utterly in technique but perhaps 
equally worth while. In The Dark King's Daughter we find an 



there she would sing, 

cresc. sempre 

The Dark King's Daughter Crist 

while the 

1900-1930 (Continued) 


Swell'd with the wind, 



Copyright, 1920, by John Church Company 

unusually rich and multicolored piano score, the harmonies un- 
loosed and cascaded all over the keyboard with the most lavish 
effect, and yet with a delicacy of harmonic feeling entirely befit- 
ting the text. Enchantment, on the other hand, is of the closest 
texture, but no less rich in its harmonic color scheme. 

These lead us naturally to the cycle Coloured Stars (Chinese 
and Nepalese texts), 1921, in which, as nowhere else, Crist has 
given full play to his love of color. As a cycle it is very suc- 
cessful in its diversity yet unity of feeling, in its skilful dis- 
tribution of high lights and shadows; for within its four songs 
there is remarkable variety of expression, from the exquisiteness 

1900-1930 (Continued) 


and restraint of The Emperor to the wild passion of Leila. In 
the former song there are many clever touches which together 
with its simplicity of style make it a very interesting and at- 
tractive song. For sheer beauty, however, the second song, 
from which the cycle appropriately takes its name, Coloured 
Stars, is far and away the best of them all. If anyone coulcf 

Coloured Stars Crtst 

And or- ango and light vio - let and lem-on, 


flifr. r7fr"^r~^ fif^. Tr^f ^Jf^fe 





1900-1930 (Confirmed) 


Copyright, 1921, by Carl Fischer 

better express in music the supreme brilliancy of such colored 
stars as "Red and purple and green to the zenith, and orange 
and light violet and lemon and bright rose and crimson all about 
the sky" we do not know where to find him. Richard Strauss 
perhaps might do so if he were in one of his inspired moods such 
as produced Cdcilie and others of his best songs, but we can 
think of no one else. It is a veritable riot of color that Crist 
has transmuted into one of the most vivid and gorgeous tone 
pictures that we know of anywhere from any composer. This 
whole section to the end of the song is worthy of our highest 
admiration. The English Girl seems a puzzle; parts of it are 
infinitely tender and expressive and the feeling of "foggy brook" 
and "mist" are splendidly realized, but the song as a whole does 
not seem on the same high plane as the rest. If in the song 
Coloured Stars Crist has unsurpassed opportunity to display all 
the brilliant colors on his palette, in Letta we get a masterly 
picture of all that is dark and sinister and poisonous ; while its 
tragic and overwhelming climax, although vastly inferior to that 
in Coloured Stars as far as beauty goes, is even more powerful 
and dramatic. 



Leila Crist 


monno e crtsc. aempic 

poi - son flow rs are your vows, The dcad-ly f un - gi your 


jnu mosso e cresc. wwpiv 


fi ( \& $* i,; 


J -J.IJ J 


kiss-es, The ycl - low co - bras_ 

*- cciN_ Oli! 

molto rttt'H 


b f * * 


piu mosso 


1900-1930 (Continued) 
molto piu mosso 


Copyright, 1921, by Carl Fischer 

Of Crist's later songs, Would You Go So Soon (anonymous 
text) is a mingling of pathos and power, and Languor (once 
more a Chinese text) is true to its name in its masterly portrayal 
of the voluptuous languor of the East. Both are of 1923. In 
1925 came the whimsical Queer Yarns (Walter de La Mare) ; 
in 1926, two songs, A Rose will Fade in a Day (Dora Sigerson 
Shorter) and White Hours Like Snow (Conrad Aiken) , the latter 
perhaps the best of Crist's later songs. The passage "Can you 
not change ? Run back again to April ? Laugh out at me from 
among young lilac leaves?" shows Crist's skill in declamation, 
and together with the dramatic climax immediately following, 
once more discloses his marvellous feeling for color. Remember 
(Christina Rossetti), 1930, is of lesser calibre, but effective. 

In the passing of Charles Tomlinson Griffes on April eighth, 
nineteen-hundred-twenty, American musical art lost one of its 
most valiant and valued protagonists. There is no question that 
had he lived out his life, he would have made a contribution to 
our native music of exceeding value; indeed, it does not seem 
entirely outside the bounds of reason to suppose that it might 
have been comparable in our own generation to what MacDowell 


gave to his. But be that as it may, he has left us much that is 
sure to live because of its intrinsic worth and beauty. 

When we come to make a serious study of his songs, we can 
but be amazed at their range and variety; and yet we cannot 
escape the conviction that in our study we are after all merely 
making explorations in the workshop of his mind ; that his songs 
the real songs he had it in his heart to sing were left unsung ; 
the finished product of his genius unfortunately was never to be 

We find him working in all styles and making use of all 
known media. He seems least influenced by Debussy and his 
school. Whatever may be true of his other forms of composi- 
tion, we find no single song showing any marked trace of that 
influence. More clearly he reflects the tendencies of the modern 
German school, and naturally so, since like most Americans he 
spent the greater part of his student days in Germany; and 
when at times he breaks loose from this German influence, it is 
to the later French and Russian schools that he turns. 

The complete list of his songs with dates of publication and 
also, where possible, of their composition, is as follows : 

PANIMENT (1909). No opus-number 

1. Auf dem Teich, dem regungslosen (Lenau) 

2. Auf geheimem W aide spf ode (Lenau) 

3. Nacht liegt auf den fremden Wegen (Heine) 

4. Der trdumende See (Mosen) 

5. Wohl lag ich einst in Gram und Schmcrz (Geibel). 

opus-number (1910) 

Zwei Kbnige sassen auf Orkadal (Geibel) 

ACCOMPANIMENT. Op. 3 (1912) 

1. La Fuite de la Lune (Oscar Wilde) 

2. Symphony in Yellow (Oscar Wilde) 

3. We'll to the Woods and Gather May (W. E. Henley) 

PANIMENT. Op. 4 (1913) 

1. This Book of Hours (Walter Crane) 

2. Come Love, across the Sunlit Land (Clinton Scollard) 

1900-1930 (Continued) 251 


1. In a Myrtle Shade (William Blake). March, 1916 

2. Wai Kiki (Rupert Brooke). April, 1916 

3. Phantom (Arturo Giovannitti). March, 1916 

VOICE AND PIANO. Op. 10 (1917). Composed 1916-17. 


1. The Lament of Ian the Proud (May, 1918) 

2. Thy Dark Eyes to Mine (May, 1918) 

3. The Rose of the Night (January, 1918) 

VOICE WITH PIANO ACCOMPANIMENT (1920). Published posthumously 

1. An Old Song Resung (July, 1918) 

2. Sorrow of Mydath 

With the first five songs (Lenau, Heine, Mosen and Geibel), 
we find the keenest sort of response to the text, typical German 
nature poems. In none of his later and more elaborate songs do 
we find a more subtle and refined workmanship or a keener ap- 
preciation of the mood to be expressed. They are typical of the 
style of Brahms and Strauss, whose influence they plainly show. 
But the wonder lies in the perfection of their art. To be sure, 
Griffes in these earlier days had not the varied technique so 
characteristic of his later work; he repeats certain effects over 
and over again. He shares with Strauss the latter's fondness 
for a J chord climax approached chromatically, for altered 
chords, enharmonic and chromatic harmonies of all kinds, and 
a strong, virile use of appoggiaturas and suspensions, all strictly 
in line with the best German tradition; in point of fact, these 
songs are as echt deutsch as Strauss himself, and, as beautiful 
and finished examples of this type of song, are worthy of careful 
and minute study. 

The first one, Auf dem Teich, dent regungslosen^ opens with 
a typical Brahms subject, entirely worthy of that great master 



Tranquillo, quasi sognando 

A Ruhig und Irdumerisch *j 

Five German Fbems Gnffes 


O'er the tarns un ruf - fled mir - ror 

Auf dcmT(\ch, d*>m re gungp-lo - Sen, 

Lies the moon light's sil 
we \lt dcs Mon - des kul 

\LT sbcrn. 

d< r Glan; 

* to. * 

Copyright by G. Schirmcr. Inc. 

Again on the following page we have a passage equally admir- 
able, but this time as much in the style of Strauss as was the 
other in that of Brahms. Note the peculiarly Straussian obbli- 
gato melody in the piano score. It is this remarkable assimila- 
tion of the technique of these masters of song-writing that makes 
these early songs so notable. Original perhaps they are not, at 
least in the sense of setting new patterns of beauty ; but a rose- 
garden is perhaps no less beautiful than a garden filled with un- 
familiar, exotic bloom, provided always, of course, that the roses 
be perfect of their kind. 

1900-1930 (Continued) 



poco era 

Five German Poems Griifes 

Sleep - i . K thrn: m the reeds 

Cop>n|;hbyC Schjrfr.rr, Ir 

In the second song, Auf gchcimcm W aides pfade, we begin 
to perceive the shadow of the future thrown across its very first 
measure, in the tonic chord colored by its sixth. Did Griffes 
look ahead and see the Symphony in Yellow and In a Myrtle 
Shade with their tonic harmonies enhanced not only by the sixth 
but by the second as well? So early had he been attracted by 
the beginnings of a new idiom. 

The third song, Nacht liegt auf den fremdcn Wegen, shows 
no continuation of this new manner of speech ; in fact, we must 
wait for La Fuite de la Lune and the Symphony in Yellow, 
three years later, for its resumption. Queerly enough, the third 


and last song of this later group, We'll to the Woods and Gather 
May, shows no trace of this new influence. Whether the order 
of the published songs was not that of their composition (he had 
not yet attained the distinction of seeing the date at the end of 
each composition, which marks the arrived and accepted com- 
poser this was not to come till some years later), or whether 
he was deliberately experimenting back and forth, of course we 
cannot say. This song abounds in clever bits of technique with 
a delightful syncopated accompaniment in the manner of 
Brahms, and again the skilful chromaticism and bits of obbli- 
gato melodies a la Strauss. 

The fourth song, Der trdumende See, shows in its middle 
section a lighter touch than has heretofore appeared a thin 
wavy line of arpeggio work, as tenuous as the air we breathe; 
perhaps a hint of Gallic grace amidst the rich, sonorous Teuton 
score ! 

If the prevailing mood of the first four songs of this group 
seems serious, indeed oftentimes sombre (for the verses of Lenau, 
Geibel and those of their kind abound in tears and much weep- 
ing), the fifth and last, Wohl lag ich einst in Gram und Schmcrz, 
is buoyant enough to more than make up for it, and is one of the 
few songs of real soul happiness that Griffes wrote. Even here, 
however, there is an undercurrent of seriousness; it is not so 
whole-heartedly happy as the later song, We'll to the Woods 
and Gather May, which is joyousness itself, free and unre- 
strained. Not so here, for the happiness is too recent, it is in 
too close juxtaposition with sorrow "O hochstcs Leid, o hochste 
Lust, wie seid ihr euch so gleich!" All this is very subtly 
realized in the music. 

Following upon these five songs without opus-nurnbcr comes 
still another to a German text (this also without opus-number), 
Zwei Kdnige sassen auf Orkadal, a ballad, sombre, dramatic in 
the dark, gloomy way that Griffes loved, nevertheless a true and 

1900-1930 (Continued) 


simple interpretation of the text. As I have said before, up to 
this point Griffes' songs are of the German type the workman- 
ship excellent, the spirit refined and often exquisite, with the ex- 
quisiteness of Wie Melodien and Traum durch die Ddmmerwng. 
Beginning with the Three Tone-Images, Op. 3 (his first 
song opus), however, we find everything changed. With the 
dropping of the German text the German atmosphere has van- 
ished. Not all at once in La Fuite de la Lune there is still 
more of Strauss than of anyone else but with the Symphony m 
Yellow the change is complete. Here is neither Brahms nor 
Strauss nor yet Griffes himself, as we have hitherto come to know 
him. We might at first think that now we detect the influence 
of Debussy, but it has too bitter and acrid a taste rather Ravel, 
perhaps ; at any rate, a new spirit has moved in and taken pos- 
session. It is a strange, exotic kind of song, with an atmosphere 

Three Tone Images Griffes 

low silk- en scarf, The thick fog 

P h'^7" tt 

Copyright by G. Schirmer, Inc. 


all its own, and beauty, too a kind of "frigid beauty," to quote 
a recent phrase. Nor is it lacking in mellower moments as well. 
What could be more delightful than the unexpected harmonic 
change at the words "And like a yellow silken scarf," and those 
delicious fifths at "The thick fog hangs along the quay." Was 
even here amid these alien surroundings the spirit of Brahms in- 
spiring those parallel thirds between voice and piano? 

How strange that close upon the heels of this unexpected 
departure from all that has gone before, should come the one 
utterly joyous outburst of all Griffes' singing, the previously 
mentioned We'll to tht Woods and Gather May, carefree, utterly 
oblivious of all responsibility, even of all thought, and that too, 
written in the simplest, most unsophisticated style imaginable; 
a song of mocking humor and heedless of all restraint ! We may 
well take note of it, for never again shall we find this mood in 
his songs. 

With the Two Rondels of Opus 4, we reach again a new and 
a still different phase of development, or another experiment, as 
you will. For This Book of Hours Griffes finds in his music the 
exact counterpart of Walter Crane's verse; there is the same 
nicety of detail, the same coldness, the same studied simplicity ; 
never were text and music more truly at one. The mediaeval 
touch is cleverly realized through the use of modal harmoniza- 
tion, through formal and delicate counterpoint, the whole hav- 
ing the tint of ivory and old gold. 

In the second Rondel, Come, Love, across the Sunlit Land, 
we find something of these same tints; there is, too, the same 
slight texture, but with an added sense of dainty and graceful 
movement, again absolutely fitting the text. This, too, is a 
type which never recurs in Griffes' songs, the nearest approach 
to it being the one immediately following these, a setting of 
William Blake's In a Myrtle Shade; but in this latter song there 
is a thicker texture, a more human touch. The same aloofness 

1900-1930 (Continued) 


is here, the same sense of detachment, but not to the same degree ; 
and influenced too, by the very human attributes of weakness 
and weariness, this subtle change of mood being very successfully 
reflected in the music. In its use of the most modern technique 
and yet in its fidelity to the archaic character of the text, it is 
thoroughly original and admirable ; indeed it is one of the most 
individual of all his songs. 

Second in this group (Op. 9) comes Wai Kiki. One may 
well admire the clever suggestion of the native Hawaiian music 
and the skill with which the piano idiom is maintained through- 
out (here is no reduction of any orchestral score), and yet be 
conscious of its frequently unvocal melodic line, and of the un- 
couth character of much of its harmonization. Still, all this 
may well be a part of the composer's plan in expressing the psy- 
chology of the text. We note the uncanny and sinister beauty of 
the passage beginning "the dark scents whisper and dim waves 
creep to me." In this song perhaps as in no other we see 
Griffes' power in painting with elemental colors. The fine son- 
ority of the passage "And new stars burn into the ancient skies" : 


Wai Kiki - Griffes 

And nrw stars burn in - to the an-cienl skies, _ 

C*p)Tiffct Ky G Sck-rmff, Ir.t. 

and the intense passion of "Two that loved or did not love, and 
one whose perplexed heart did evil, foolishly" are scarcely sur- 
passed in all his writing. 




Wai Kiki Griff es 

Of two that loved or did not love, 

cresc molto appassionato 

did e - vil, fool-ish-ly, 


1900-1930 (Continued) 


Phantom, the third and last of this group of poems, is a bit 
of fantasy, attracting while it repels, its atmosphere dark and 
forbidding, and yet in its final page occurs one of Griffes' most 
charming phrases, "And hear thee sing again that old, sweet 
song" : 


Phantom Griffes 

i i i a J 

and hear thee sing a - gain 

old, sweet song, . 


/L f . i ^T^ Tt 

Copyrigbt by G. Schirmcr, Inc. 

Op. 10, Five Poems of Ancient China and Japan, we may 
consider a clever, more or less successful, experiment in the 
oriental idiom, perhaps more interesting to the experimenter 
than to anyone else, though this opinion is likely to be challenged 
by those who, realizing the fascination exerted over Griffes by 
oriental music and knowing his extraordinary interest in the 
influence of the idiom of the East upon present-day occidental 
music, feel that his contributions in this field are of unique and 
lasting value. 

In Op. 11, however, we come to what is probably the fairest 
flowering of Griffes' art in song, The Lament of Ian the Proud, 


and Thy Dark Eyes to Mine. In this same opus is included 
The Rose of the Night, which with Phantom and to a lesser 
degree Sorrow of Mydath, represents the darker and more per- 
verse side of Griffes' art and can perhaps best be considered 
another of his unique experiments in depicting unusual emo- 
tional moods. Nowhere in all his songs, however, do we find a 
climax more dramatically conceived or more powerfully ex- 
pressed than in the final pages of The Rose of the Night. 

The Lament of Ian the Proud is sombre enough, it is true, 
but presents no unmitigated despair. Here the composer shows 
himself master of his art ; there is no hesitancy or uncertainty in 
the drawing, no superfluous lines all is well ordered and sane. 
The accompaniment is no true piano score, but suggests the 
orchestra with its first syllable ; and there is no question that its 
effect is greatly enhanced when the orchestra is used ; but even 
without this added attractiveness the song interests one by 
reason of the perfection of its workmanship, the appropriateness 
of its thematic material and the reserve with which the entire 
mood is presented. Here is no loud-mouthed ranting, but a 
sincere and infinitely pathetic presentment of an old man's un- 
assuageable grief. In this simplicity and nobility of its expres- 
sion it is perhaps Griffes' finest song. 

'EbsL Dark Eyes to Mine is its fit companion, but contrasts 
with it in almost every particular. Where that is pathetic and 
a bit austere, this is velvetlike in the richness and smoothness of 
its texture. The whole first section is as sensuous as the heavy 
perfume of the lily, but so skilfully has the composer ordered 
his effects that there is nothing cloying or oppressive. Here he 
has poured out his gifts with a lavish hand, but always with the 
most scrupulous regard for balance and perspective. Nothing 
is overloaded or obscure. Vital and constantly varying rhythms 
are here, a smooth melodic line, rich, colorful harmonics, abun- 
dance of attractive obbligato melodies in the piano score, as well 

1900-1930 (Continued) 261 

as much attractively modelled contrapuntal passagework for the 
piano; in short, a song of the greatest charm. The middle 
section is a bit vague and distinctly inferior to the rest of the 
song, but where shall we find the composer who never lapses ? 

There remain but two further songs to be considered, both 
published since the composer's death An Old Song Resung 
and Sorrow of Mydath. The former is a vigorous sea-song, full 
of the tang of the sea air and with a powerful climax as sinister 
as it is powerful. The Sorrow of Mydath is in Griffes' more 
extreme and less convincing style, though not without character- 
istic touches of power as well as beauty, the close being admir- 
ably handled. 

We should choose then as most worthy among the songs we 
have been discussing The Lament of Ian the Proud, Thy Dark 
Eyes to Mint, The Hose of the Night, Wai Kiki, for their un- 
usuallv successful delineation of moments of great emotional 
stress, for their broad sweep of passion, their heroic qualities 
per se; In a Myrtle Shade, The Book of Hours, for the beauty 
of their detail, their charm of expression, finesse; Come, Love, 
across the Sunlit Land, We'll to the Woods and Gather May, 
Wohl lag ich einst in Gram und Schmerz, for their finely differ- 
entiated moods of joyousness, each one entirely individual and 
all equally convincing; La Fuite de la Lune for its contemplative 
charm and attractive out-of-doors touches; and Auf dem Teich, 
dem Regungslosen, Auf geheimem Waldespfade, Nacht liegt 
auf den frcmden Wcgen, Der trdumende See, for their grace of 
style, their clarity and sincerity both in content and expression. 

What then is Griffes' individual contribution to the art of 

It seems to me to lie in his unfailing sincerity of style, noth- 
ing ever done for extraneous effect, everything tending to inter- 
pret and elucidate the text; in the skill of his craftsmanship 
(used in the broadest sense of the word), the originality, appro- 



priateness and inherent value of his thematic material, the 
beauty and richness of his harmonization, the singableness of his 
melodies, the vitality and virility of his rhythmic sense. More 
specifically we find in his technique one item of superlative 
charm his skill (already referred to) in modelling appropriate 
and effective contrapuntal passagework for the piano. Here it 
seems to me he has few equals and no superiors. Strauss is 
past-master in this same art, but I know of nothing in his songs 
that can surpass in effectiveness and sheer beauty two passages 
of this sort in Thy Dark Eyes to Mine; for delicacy and purity 
of line, for rhythmic charm, for smoothness of finish, the closing 
measures "afar, a falling star" ; 


Thy Dark Eyes to Mine - Gnffes 

Copyright by O. Schirmer, Inc. 

1900-1930 (Continued) 


for passion, sonority, brilliancy and yet breadth, a dramatic 
gesture instinct with all that is heroic and noble, the earlier pas- 
sage "even of one such kiss, all of the soul of me would leap afar." 


Thy Dark Eyes to Mine Griffes 

e - ven of one 
ech o e'en 



All of the soul of me uould leap a - far, 


f molto t*jjttssico 

Copyright by G. Schinner, Inc. 

These two passages alone would proclaim his distinction as a 
writer. We find many such passages, however, as for instance 
in the piu mosso near the end of The Lament of Ian the Proud, 
beginning "O blown, whirling leaf" : 




The Lament of Ian the Proud Gnffes 
f Pnimosso 

Copyright by G. Schirmer, Inc. 

1900-1930 (Continued) 265 

This is a fine example of maximum of effect with minimum of 
effort, a situation so often and so deplorably reversed in modern 
writing. Also in The Rose of the Night, Wai Kiki, And even in 
the midst of the turmoil of Phantom we find momentary glints 
of this splendor. 

To forecast what Griffes might have accomplished in his 
song-writing had he lived, is manifestly impossible ; it is difficult 
enough to pass final judgment on what he has left us it is so 
evidently incomplete. Indeed, we have no means of knowing 
even what was his own idea in the matter, whether he actually 
grew so far away from his earlier style as some of his later songs 
would imply, or whether they, too, were but a passing phase, an 
experiment to be in turn followed by something different, or 
even by a possible reversion to some earlier type. 

There are certain fixed or semi-fixed elements throughout his 
songs which may be of assistance in determining these matters 
in so far as they may be determined for instance, Griffes seems 
to have had almost a classical reverence for form ; not at all in 
terms of binary, ternary and the like, but of symmetry, balance 
and proportion. His first songs do not classify themselves 
readily except as free durchkomponirte Lieder, but one is never 
conscious of any lack of form in the sense of cohesion, of sym- 
metry. This feeling of unity is obtained in many ways 
through persistent accompanimental figures, through recurring 
melodies and phrases, and most of all perhaps through an almost 
never failing repetition (modified it may be) at the very end of 
the song, of some melody or rhythm that has appeared earlier 
in some important or striking manner. Thus a perfect sense 
of unity is secured, and that in the midst of variety a very 
happy and flexible formal scheme, allowing the composer the 
utmost freedom in interpreting his text and yet without any 
suggestion of formlessness. Hence it would seem entirely safe 
to assume that Griffes would never have outgrown his regard for 


essential form, and no matter how far he might have gone in 
other directions his work would always have been characterized 
by symmetry and balance and not left to drift aimlessly along. 

In no respect perhaps did Griffes show more marked in- 
dividuality than in his sensitiveness to rhythmic subtleties. In 
the three songs of Op. 11, The Lament of Ian the Proud, Thy 
Dark Eyes to Mine, and The Rose of the Night, with perhaps 
the second of the posthumous songs, Sorrow of Mydath, his 
command of rhythm reached its climax. In all of these we find 
the freest kind of rhythmical development. Here is no alter- 
nation of different time-signatures, as in his earlier songs (par- 
ticularly Op. 9) ; all is unified through one main rhythmic 
impulse, but this impulse ebbs and flows with indescribable free- 

There seems no question then that, as far as form and 
rhythm are concerned, his further development could scarcely 
have been other than in the direction of an ever increasing whole- 
some rhythmic vitality, and this tendency would have been con- 
stantly guarded from danger of excess through his innate feeling 
for form and symmetry. What his further development would 
have been as regards melody and its harmonic background can 
only be the freest sort of surmise. For, as we have said, his 
work never seemed settled in these respects; he never seemed 
decided in his own mind as to what his final trend would be. But 
it seems only reasonable to suppose that the simplicity of feeling 
which he showed so attractively in his first five German songs, in 
the three Tone-Images, in the two Rondels, and not so simply 
but even more expressively and deeply in The Lament of Ian the 
Proud and Thy Dark Eyes to Mine, still further deepened and 
strengthened by his growing power of self-expression, would 
have eventuated in songs combining the utmost depth of feeling 
with real power and vitality of expression. 

1900-1930 (Continued) 267 

As time passes and we study these songs more and more with 
regard to their own development and their relation to other con- 
temporary American songs, the regret continually deepens that 
this great talent should have been so prematurely cut down. It 
seems increasingly clear that Griff es had something to give that, 
so far at least, no one else seems quite to possess. We see 
in his Op. 11 (Three Poems by Fiona MacLeod), for instance, 
not only such rich accomplishment they bear manifold repeti- 
tion and continued study remarkably well but still more such 
sure promise of future achievement, yet richer, yet more 
worth while, that (as in the similar case of MacDowell) it seems 
both a national calamity and a national disgrace that such a 
seemingly unnecessary loss should have been possible. If there 
are still in our midst those with such talents (or such genius, if 
you will), overburdened, sacrificed to dull daily routine, may we 
have the grace to rescue them before it be too late. 

As musical affairs are judged by today's standards, none of 
the group just under discussion, except Griffes, could be classed 
other than as fairly conservative. He alone had the devoted 
modernist's love of searching after new truths, even at the cost 
of the most drastic experimentation. The rest, while making 
free use, as occasion suggested, of different modern idioms, thus 
showing no unwillingness to follow where others had led, yet 
apparently have had no desire to break new paths of their 
own, or do any intensive exploring on their own account. And 
there is always this line of cleavage. Human nature seems to be 
so constituted that there always must be the two types side by 
side, the one continually experimenting, always enthusiastic, full 
of the creative instinct, dissatisfied with the present, tired of the 
old ways and means, looking for something different, rather im- 
patient of those who seem too placidly content with things as 
they are ; the other, reverent toward all that is beautiful in the 
past, diffident in regard to new means and methods, fearful of 


losing what has been so laboriously won through the past ages, 
wishing to see the old types enlarged and beautified rather than 
new types evolved. And of course this is exceedingly fortunate. 
Without the one, no progress could ever be made, and without 
the other there would be no stability of any sort ; while without 
those occupying the happy mean between these two extremes, art 
would lack its very necessary balance-wheel. 


WE have seen art-song in America founded upon the solid 
rock of German study and tradition, and we cannot be 
too thankful that this high German ideal of sincerity, of thor- 
oughness, in short "the artistic conscience," was so deeply im- 
planted in our native song at its first beginning, holding sway 
even to the very present. A permeating influence such as that 
of Schubert, Schumann, Brahms, and later Wolf and Strauss, 
could scarcely be surpassed to leaven the lump of our im- 

It has been interesting to observe, as the years have passed, 
how potent has been this initial German impulse through the 
decades, now and again meeting new influences like the Negro 
idiom, the Indian element, but brushing them aside and keeping 
to its steady course till well into the twentieth century, when 
cross currents have become stronger, and we find many experi- 
ments developing along new lines. Much of French, of Russian 
influence has become apparent. Debussy in his time exercised 
what was probably the predominant external influence, though 
where Debussy had his thousands, Brahms and Strauss had still 
their tens of thousands. Of late these outer influences have grown 
vastly in power and effectiveness. The advent of such men as 
Charles M. Loeffler and Ernest Bloch in our midst exerted tre- 
mendous pressure toward a modifying of our hitherto strongly 
intrenched Teutonic ideals. And justly so, for we had de- 
veloped these ideas and ideals to such an extent that it was time 
for the introduction of some new ingredient to lighten and 



brighten what was in danger of becoming a bit stale. What 
may come out of all this turmoil of new ideas it is hard to fore- 
see ; but it already seems an established fact that in times to come 
we shall look back upon these earlier decades of the twentieth 
century as that time when the current of our song began cutting 
for itself new and deeper channels. 

In the general development of art-song in America, as else- 
where, we have seen that its first form was that closely allied 
to folk-song, with the simplest kind of melody imaginable and the 
merest chord accompaniment. At its worst this type of song 
consists in merely putting any metrical tune to any metrical 
text, entirely irrespective of any appropriateness in the choos- 
ing. Even at its best we need not look for any close correspond- 
ence between words and music. The most we can hope for is 
that it shall show a melody which fits the general mood of the 
text ; and when this is the case, its simplicity and naivete can be 
most appealing, as witness the well-known melodies of Stephen 

Following this first primitive form, we find that in which the 
melody and the accompaniment, either or both, begin to become 
more attractive, more elaborate, by means of contrapuntal 
touches, richer harmonization, and similar devices, yet with little 
or no thought of actual interpretation, a general appropriate- 
ness of treatment being still the only object sought. Naturally, 
it is but a step further to include amidst this increasing elabo- 
ration certain interpretative effects, at first purely external, but 
even so, marking a definite advance. Soon, however, we begin 
to note some subjective development a melody which in itself 
expresses much of the mood of the poem; a freer, more spon- 
taneous declamation, which, while still retaining an attractive 
vocal line, is yet able to embody the text as perfectly as does the 
spoken word ; ability to emphasize the turn of a thought in the 
text by some subtle harmonic change in the music ; and an ever- 


growing and increasingly intimate interrelation between voice 
and accompaniment, the one constantly enriching and intensify- 
ing the other, until we find the texture so closely interwoven that 
it is scarcely possible to distinguish the different strands, and we 
begin to realize what fascinating possibilities are thus opened to 
the sensitive designer of such tonal tapestry. 

To my mind this ultimate fusion of text and music can exist 
in either of the two most distinctive types of song : in that type in 
which every shade of the text is mirrored in the music the 
"panoramic song," as Philip Hale has called it ; and also in the 
other and more general type in which only the prevailing mood of 
the text is expressed, supplemented at times by such devices as 
above described. To whichever of these classes it may belong, it 
is coming to be more and more recognized that modern song can 
no longer be regarded as merely text plus music or music plus 
text; it is rather text multiplied by music, music multiplied by 
text, text so reacting upon music, music so reacting upon text, 
that the two elements become indissolubly merged into one 
another, the one really incomplete without the other. In fact, 
it seems to me that this might well be our test of the modern 
song: if we derive as much artistic satisfaction from the mere 
reading of the text itself as in hearing the completed song ; or, on 
the other hand, if substituting an instrument for the voice, thus 
throwing out the text altogether, we are still conscious of no ap- 
preciable loss, then in neither case has the song entirely justified 
itself ; the composer has not risen to the full height of his task. 

Consciously or unconsciously, the modern song-writer is fol- 
lowing more and more closely in the footsteps of that supreme 
genius of the nineteenth century Richard Wagner and mod- 
ern song is increasingly inclined to take a leaf out of his note- 
book ; a simple and fragmentary leaf it may be, but yet of his very 
essence. To be sure, the technique is of our century, not his, but 
the fundamental idea is the same that of an elaborated form 


of the ancient arioso, with its free recitative, at times simplified 
until it becomes merely an expressive declamation of the text, at 
other times of greater emotional stress, flowering out into real 
melody ; the entire score serving much as did Wagner's orches- 
tra to emphasize the mood, to italicize certain pictorial or psycho- 
logical ideas, even at times making use of the leit-motif itself. Or 
again it may happen that the voice part merely interweaves itself 
with the pattern of the piano score, thus forming a clever lineal 
design. So that not only do we revert to Wagner, but it may 
well be that we shall complete a still greater cycle, and perhaps 
yet find ourselves back in the instrumental idiom of Haydn's 
time, where little thought was given to the appropriate treat- 
ment of the text the mere beauty of the design itself being 
considered sufficient. 

Just how far this feeling of the varied interrelation of these 
two integral elements of song can be carried before song ceases to 
be song may well become a point for discussion. My own feel- 
ing in the matter is that much modernistic song-writing has little 
to do with song as such, and might better be called by a differ- 
ent name. True song, it seems to me, must even still concern it- 
self primarily with the vocal line, all else being secondary, though 
serving in all possible ways to amplify and interpret the text. 
It is conceivable that we are on the verge of producing an entirely 
new art-form in which the vocal line as such ceases to exist and 
becomes merely one element in evoking a mood or interpreting a 
thought, in doing which it may often take a very secondary and 
even fragmentary part. The possibilities of this new art-form 
are manifold, and it will be interesting to see its development in 
the coming years ; but assuredly song, as we have hitherto under- 
stood the term, it will cease to be. 

And just as in world politics we are coming to see the nations 
of the earth in closer and closer association, even their national 
policies and very modes of thought more and more merging into 


one another, so in the arts, nationalistic schools are beginning 
to lose their definite boundaries and are coming more and more 
to blend together until it is now no longer easy to speak defin- 
itely of the French school, the German, Italian or Russian 
schools. Art is no longer amenable to such definite labels as 
heretofore; unclassified individualism seems the normal status 
of today. So that we need not be unduly anxious over the 
growth (or lack of growth) of an American school of this, that, 
or the other, not even of music ; but rather place our hopes on 
the development of such personalities in America and elsewhere, 
as shall by reason of their own individual genius transcend all 
schools and nationalistic barriers, and in this way bring honor 
to their native land. And if the present rampant individualism, 
in music as in other arts, in America as in other lands, seems 
often to lead to extremes and absurdities of all sorts, let us 
assume that it is only genius in the making the active process 
of a fermentation necessary to the ultimate strength and purity 
of the product, and let us have patience till the time of mellow- 
ness and ripening shall come. 

When this new art-condition shall have established itself, 
built upon the four-square foundations securely laid by the 
great German masters, but modified by Gallic grace, by the way- 
ward charm of the Celt, the Russian pathos and stark realism, 
the new British, Italian, Spanish influence, and, let us hope, by 
something from America herself, we shall perhaps begin to 
realize that art development, like nearly everything else, is 
rhythmical it comes in pulses, vibrations, waves, sequences, 
what you will and calm is as sure to follow storm in art as in 
nature; so that after this season of what sometimes seems like 
nothing but intensive experimentation, we may very likely sooner 
or later find ourselves in some settled period of art development, 
comparatively free from all this uncertainty of purpose and ex- 
travagance of means so characteristic of our day. 


In the meantime it behooves those of us who are but inter- 
ested onlookers to give our hearty support to every earnest effort 
toward this end, provided only that the effort be genuinely sin- 
cere. For if we believe it to be truly an axiom that art without 
sincerity is no longer art, then it can scarcely be less true that 
sincerity in art, no matter what may be its expression, is at all 
times worthy of one's deep respect. 


A BT, FRANZ, 34 

ALLEN, B. D., 55, 69, 71 
ALLEN, N. H., 102-103 
American Musical Association, 35 
ARNE, THOMAS A., 6-7, 33 
A THE s, FREDERIC, 141, 153-154 

DACH, C. P. E., 14 



BARNETT, ALICE, 182, 214-224, 235 
BARTLETT, HOMER N., 68, 78, 80-82, 

89-99, 102, 112, 182 
BARTLETT, J. C., 102-103, 109 
BASSFORD, W. K., 102-103 
BAUER, MARION, 141, 144-145 
BEACH, JOHN, 141, 149-151 
BEACH, MRS. H. H. A., 112, 120, 134- 


BEETHOVEN, L. VAN, 99, 153 
BENKERT, GEORGE F., 37, 53-54 
Berlin Conservatory, 37 
BIRD, ARTHUR, 165-166 
BLOCH, ERNEST, 141-142, 144, 165, 269 

BOOTT, FRANCIS, 32, 37, 51-53, 57, 68 
Boston Philharmonic Orchestra, 28 
BOYLE, GEORGE F., 141, 143-144, 165 
BRAHMS, JOHANNES, 73-75, 99, 114, 153, 

170, 188, 190, 213, 235, 251-252, 

254-256, 269 

BRANDEIS, FREDERIC, 31, 55, 72-73 
BREMNER, JAMES, 1, 10, 30 
BRISTOW, GEORGE F., 31-32, 36-37, 43- 

46, 51, 61, 80 

BROAD HURST, Miss, 8, 16 
BROCKWAY, HOWARD, 141, 156-157 
BUCK, DUDLEY, 78, 80-89, 99-100, 102, 

111-112, 182 



FIELD, 177 

CAMPBELL-TIPTON, Louis, 165, 168-170 

197-213, 224, 235-236 
CARR, BENJAMIN, 11, 14-24, 36, 112 
CHADWICK GEORGE W., 107, 112-113, 










Cox, RALPH, 178 


CRIST, BAINBRIDOE, 182, 213, 236-249 





c. HENSHAW, 102, 105 

DEBUSST, CLAUDE, 142, 109, 170, 172, 

185, 212, 214, 232, 200, 200, 269 
DEEMS, JAMES M., 32, 36-37, 48-01 
DEIS, CARL, 141, 160, 162 
DREBEL, OTTO, 31, 00, 70-72 
DULCKEN, FERDINAND Q., 102-103, 109 
DUNN, JAKES P., 178 
DUPAHC, HENRI, 140, 172 
D WIGHT, JOHN SULLIVAN, 38, 41, 46, 

03, 07, 69, 71 

t's Journal, 37-38, 40, 44, 07, 61 

gASTCOTT, MRS., 100 


ELSON, Louis C., 102-103 
EMERY, STEPHEN, 102-103 
ENGEL, CARL, 141, 147-149, 101 
Enter piad, The, 7, 9, 33 



FARWELL, ARTHUR, 141, 103-106 


FISHER, WILLIAM ARMS, 112, 120, 120- 


FLINT, JAMES, 29, 36 
FOOTE, ARTHUR, 94, 112-116, 120 
FOSTER, STEPHEN C., 30, 32, 37, 39-41, 

01, 270 

Fox, J. BERTRAM, 179 
FRANZ, ROBERT, 38-39, 70, 102 
FRIES, WULP, 31, 00, 72 
FRY, WILLIAM H., 32, 36-37, 41-43, 46- 

47, 01, 62, 80 

QADE, NIELS W., 109 

GEORGE, Miss, 8 
GILBERT, HENRY F., 112, 120, 134 
GILCHRIST, W. W., 102, 100-107, 111 
GOLDBECK, ROBERT, 00, 61-62, 70-77 


GRAUPNER, GOTTLIEB, 11, 26, 28, 31, 36 
GRIFFES, CHARLES T., 144-140, 162, 182, 

236, 249-268 
GRIMM, C. HUGO, 178 



1JADLEY, HENRY, 141, 107-109 

HAOEMANN, RICHARD, 141, 109-160 
HAGEN, P. A. VON, 1, 10, 30 
HALSTEAB, R. P., 36 
HANDED G. F., 9, 33 



HARRIS, GEORGE, 141, 163-164 
HARRIS, W. V., 140 
HATTON, J. L. t 29, 31 
HAUPTMANN, MORITZ, 47, 100, 109 
HAYDN, F. J., 23, 28, 34, 272 
HEWITT, JAMES, 11, 23-27, 36 
HILLER, F. vow, 70, 109 
HOFFMAN, RICHARD, 30, 55, 70 
HOMER, SIDNEY, 112, 120, 126, 131-132 

HONAUER, L., 10 

HOPKINSON, FRANCIS, 1-6, 10, 112, 182 
HORN, CHARLES ., 29-30 
HUBS, HENRY HOLDEN, 112, 120, 126, 
128, 130-131 

IVES, ELAM, JR., 29, 35 


JOHNSON, J. A., 36 

JORDAN, JULES, 102-103, 107-109, 111 



KING, WILLIAM A., 29, 35-36 
KNIGHT, J. P., 29, 31 


KOHLER, Louis, 75 

KRAMER, A. WALTER, 182, 213-214, 

KROEOER, ERNST R., 112, 120, 126, 128- 

Kullak Academy, 61, 100 

f A FORGE, FRANK, 177 

LANO, B. J., 55, 69 
Leipsic Conservatory, 37, 100 
Lnuer. FRANZ, 99, 160 
LODER, GEOKJE P. H., 29, 35 

165, 269 

120, 134 

JLjAcDOWELL, EDWARD, 112, 114, 

120-124, 157, 249, 267 
MACK, A. A., 180 


MARS-TON, GEORGE W., 102-103 



McCoY, WM. J., 102, 107 
MENDELSSOHN, FELIX, 37-38, 43, 70, 75, 

99, 109 

Mendelssohn Quintette Club, 72 
MERZ, KARL, 55, 74 
MIIXARD, HARRISON, 51, 55, 68-69, 100 
MILLS, S. B., 55, 70 
MOZART, W. A., 23, 34, 68-69 
Musical Independence, 61 
Musical World and Times (N. Y.), 41 

jyEIDLINGER, WM. H., 140 

Neue Academic der Tonkunst, 37- 

NEVIN, ETHELBERT, 112, 120, 125-126 
New York Manuscript Society, 43 
New York Philharmonic Society, 35 
NICHOLL, H. W., 102-103, 111 

OSGOOD, GEORGE L., 102, 104, 111 
OSOOOD, H. O., 180 

PAINE, JOHN K., 62, 78-so, 99-100 

PARKER, HORATIO, 112, 120, 132- 

PARKER, J. C. D., 55, 57-60, 71, 99-100, 

112, 182 

PEASE, ALFRED H., 55, 61-68, 81, 99-100, 

107, 112, 182 

PELISSIER, VICTOR, 11, 23-24, 28 
Philadelphia Musical Seminary, 35 

POWELL, JOHN, 141, 160 
PRATT, SILAS G., 102, 107 


REIFF, A., JR., 36 
RICHTER, E. P., 100 
RIHM, ALEXANDER, 141, 157 


RnTER, FREDERICK L., 55, 74-75 


ROGERS, JAMES H., 112, 120 
Ross, GERTRUDE, 180 
ROSSINI, G., 32 


SCHLESINGER, S. B., 55, 73 


SCHUBERT, FRANZ, 34, 38-39, 65, 99, 
113, 160, 269 



SCHUMANN, ROBERT, 38-39, 75, 99, 102- 

104, 153, 157, 269 
SELBY, WILLIAM, 1, 10, 30 
SHEPHERD, ARTHUR, 141, 146-147 







SONNECK, OSCAR G., 2, 9, 111, 151-152 


SOUTHARD, LUCIEN H., 32, 55-57 



SPELLMAN, T. N., 165-166 

SPOIIR, Louis, 74 





STRATTON, G. W., 37, 53-54 
STRAUSS, RICHARD, 121, 214, 224, 235, 

247, 251-252, 254-255, 262, 269 

THOMAS, THEODORE, 38, 42, 61 





183, 189, 271-272 
WALTER, W. H., 36 
WARREN, SAMUEL P., 102-106, 111 
WATSON, HENRY C., 29-30, 35 
WATTS, WINTTER, 94, 144, 182-197, 213, 

224, 227 

WEBB, GEORGE J.. 29-30 
WEIL, OSCAR, 102-103, 107 
WIEPRECHT, F. W., 100 
WILLIS, RICHARD S., 32, 36-37, 41, 46- 

19, 51, 99-100 
WOLF, HUGO, 269 
WOOLF, B. E., 30, 55, 70 
WUERST, RICHARD, 100, 107 


TAYLOR, RAYNOR, 11, 14-16, 23, 

25, 36 

TESCHNER, G. W., 100 

5 =